Read time 0,20 - 5 chapters - 154 verses - 3,415 words

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The Hebrew title of this book is'ekah ("How ...!"), And the first word is not only 1: 1 but also 2: 1. 4: 1. The reason is, of the subject matter, also referred to in Jewish tradition as a book Ginot , taken over by the "Lamentations," the Septuagint Latin Vulgate Bible of the fourth century by the (pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT).

Author and date

Lamentations are anonymous, but ancient Jewish and early Christian traditions attribute it to Jeremiah. These traditions are partly based on 2Ch 35:25 (although the "mourning" mentioned there is indistinguishable from the OT lamentations). In part, text like Jer 7:29. 8:21; 9: 1,10,20; Also partly about the similar vocabulary and style between Lamentations and Jeremiah's prophecies. Moreover, such attribution gains some relevance from the fact that Jeremiah was a witness to God's judgment against Jerusalem in 586 BC. This is drawn very clearly here. Nevertheless, it is unclear who wrote these carefully crafted poems or who is responsible for putting them together in one scroll. Lamentations express people bitterly

The earliest possible date of the book is 586 BC and the latest date is 516 (when the reconstructed Jerusalem was dedicated). The immediacy of the Lamentations graphic probably claims an earlier date before 575.

Literary features

The whole book is poetic. The first, second, fourth, and fifth mournings all contain 22 verses, reflecting the number of characters in the Hebrew alphabet. In the first and second mourning, each poem contains three poetic lines. Each fourth poem contains two lines. And each fifth poem contains only one line. The first four mournings are the acrostics of the alphabet (1: 1; 21: 1; 3: 1; 4: 1). The first, second, and fourth verses begin with the letters specified in the traditional order of the Hebrew alphabet. The third (center) mourning is characterized by the fact that it consists of 22 three-line units (like mourning 1 and 2), while all three lines of each unit begin in alphabetical order. (Therefore, three Aleph lines followed by three Beth lines, etc.)-after the way of Psalm 119. The fifth mourning continues to reflect the alphabetical pattern in a 22-line structure, but the first letters of these lines do not follow the alphabetical order (5: 1-22). The use of the alphabet as a formal structural element shows that no matter how passionate these mournings were, they were constructed with the attention studied.

Themes and theology

Lamentations are not the only Old Testament that includes individual or community mourning. (Many of the Psalms are mourning poems, and all prophecies except the Book of Haggai contain one or more examples of the mourning genre.) However, mourning is the only book that consists only of mourning. ..

As a series of mourning for the destruction of Jerusalem (the royal capital of the kingdom of the Lord) in 586 BC, it stands in the tradition of ancient non-biblical writings such as Sumer's "destruction or mourning for Ur", "mourning". .. "Destruction of Sumer and Ur", "Lamentation for the destruction of nipples". Orthodox Jews usually read the whole aloud on the ninth day of Abu, the day when Solomon's Temple was destroyed in 586 and Herod's Temple was destroyed in 1970. Many read on the Wailing Wall every week. The "Wailing Wall" in the Old City of Jerusalem). In addition, this book is important in traditional Roman Catholic liturgy and is customarily read during the last three days of Holy Week.

This Christian practice reminds us that lamentations not only lament the destruction of Jerusalem, but also contain deep theological insights. The horrors associated with the destruction of Babylonia in Judas are described in some detail.

1. King (2: 6,9; 4:20), Prince (1: 6; 2: 9; 4: 7-8; 5:12), Elder (1: 6) involved in massive devastation and slaughter 19; 2:10; 4:16; 5:12), priests (1: 4,19; 2: 6,20; 4:16), prophets (2: 9,20) and common people (2: 10-) 12; 3:48; 4: 6) Similarly.

2. The hungry mother cannibalized (2:20; 4:10).

3. The flowers of the inhabitants of Judah were dragged into a disgraceful exile (1: 3,18).

4. The elaborate system of rituals and worship is over (1: 4-, 10).

However, this recital is integrated into the structure of poetic wrestling with the divine way of dealing with his whimsical people, primarily in history.

The authors of these mournings and those who preserved them clearly understood that the Babylonians were merely human agents of God's judgment. It was God himself who destroyed the town and the temple (1: 12-15; 2: 1-8,17,22; 4:11). This was not just an arbitrary act on the part of the Lord. Blatant sin against God and rebellion breaking the covenant were the root of his people's worries (1: 5,8-9; 4:13; 5: 7,16). Weeping (1:16; 2: 11,18; 3: 48-51) is expected, and the cry of salvation against the enemy (1:22; 3: 59-66) is understandable (Psalm 5:10), Appropriate response to judgment is recognition of sin (1: 5,8,14,22; 2:14; 3:39; 4:13, 5: 7,16) and heartfelt repentance (3: 40-42). is. Trust in God's mercy and faithfulness must not diminish. A book that begins with mourning (1:

In the middle of the book, Lamentations theology culminates in focusing on God's goodness. He is the Lord of Hope (3: 21,24-25), Love (3:22), Faithfulness (3:23), Salvation and Recovery (3:26). Despite all the evidence against it, "His compassion never fails./They are new every morning; / Your loyalty is great" (3: 22-23).

Near the end of the book, faith rises from the sad state of Jerusalem and recognizes the eternal reign of Yahweh. "Lord, you are forever."

Interpretation challenges for lamentations

Certain details cause early problems. Among them:

  1. Prayer of thanks for judging other sinners (1:21, 22; 3: 64-66)

  2. Why God shuts out prayer (3: 8)

  3. The need for very strict judgment (see 1: 1, 14; 3: 8)

God's character in lamentations

  1. God is faithful-3: 22-25; 5: 19-22

  2. God is good-3:25

  3. God is merciful-3:22; 23, 32

  4. God is indignant-1: 5, 12, 15, 18; 2: 1, 17, 20-22; 3: 37-39

Christ of mourning

Jeremiah's tears flowed from the deep love he had for the Israelites (3: 48-49). Similarly, Christ himself cried out in the city of Jerusalem. "Jerusalem, kill the Prophet and stone the ones sent to her. I wanted to collect your children as chickens. Collect her chicks under her wings. Yes, but you weren't happy! " (Matt 23: 37-39; Luke 19: 41-44). Christ must judge those who rebel against him, but he also feels great sadness in the loss of his loved ones.


I. Jerusalem's standard devastation (ch.1)

II. Lord's Folklore Lord's Wrath (ch.2)

III. Judas Iscariot-The Basics of Comfort (ch.3)

IV. Comparison of Zion's past and present (ch.4)

V. To the Lord of Judas seeking forgiveness and pleasure (ch.5)


  1. Construction

  2. Come on, read the lamentations