7 Chapters, 105 verses, 3,153 words.
Little is know about the prophet Micah beyond what can be learned from the book itself and from Jer 26:18. Micah was from the town of Moresheth (1:1), probably Moresheth Gath (1:14) is southern Judah. The prophecy attests to Micah's deep sensitivity to the social ills of his, especially as they affected the small towns and villages of his homeland.
Micah prophesied sometime between 750 and 686 B.C during the reigns of Jonathan, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah (1:1; Jer 26:18). He was therefore a contemporary of Isaiah (Isa 1:1) and Hosea (Hos 1:1). Micha predicted the fall of Samaria (1:6), which took place in (722-721). This would place his early ministry in the reigns of Jotham (750-732) and Ahaz (735-715). (The reigns of Jotham and Ahaz overlapped.) Micah' message reflects social conditions prior to the religious reforms under Hezekiah (715-686). Micah's ministry most likely fell within the period 735-700.
In Micah himself wrote out his messages, the date for the earliest written form of his work would be c. 700. If one of his disciples arranged his messages in their present from, the date would be the early seventh century B.C. If a later editor collected and arranged his messages, the date would still need to be early enough in the seventh century to allow time for his prophecy of Jerusalem's fall (3:12) to become familiar enough to be quoted in Jer 26:18 c. 608.
The background of the book is the same as that found in the earlier portions of Isaiah, though Miccah does not exhibit the same knowledge of Jerusalem's political life as Isaiah does. Perhaps this is because he, like Amos, was from a village in Judah. The relevant Biblical texts covering this period are 2Ki 15:32-20:21; 2Ch 27-32; Isa 7:20; 36-39.
Israel was in an apostate condition. Micah predicted the fall of her capital, Samaria (1:5-7), and also foretold the inevitable desolation of Judah (1:9-16).
Several significant historical events occurred during this period:
1. In 734-732 B.C. Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria led a military campaign against Aram (Syria), Philistia and arts of Israel and Judah. Ashkelon and Gaza were defeated. Judah, Ammon, Edom and Moab paid tribute to the Assyrian king, but Israel did not fare as well. According to 2Ki 15:29 the northern kingdom lost most of its territory, including all of Gilead and much of Galilee. Damascus fell in 732 and was annexed to the Assyrian empire.
2. In 722-721 Samaria fell, and the northern kingdom of Israel was conquered by Assyria.
3. In 712 King Sargon II of Assyria captured Ashdod (Isa 20:1).
4. In Judah joined a revolt against Assyria and was overrun by King Sennacherib and his army, though Jerusalem was spared.