Graphics of Luke


Luke's Time

 Herod the Great begins to ruleJesus is born Escape to Egypt Herod the Great dies Return to Nazareth Jesus visits Temple as a boy  Tiberius
Caesar becomes 
emperor
 John's ministry beginsJesus begins his ministry Jesus chooses twelve disciples Jesus feeds 5,000 Jesus is crucified, rises again, and ascends 
 37 B.C.6/5 B.C. 5/4 B.C.  4 B.C.  4/3 B.C. A.D. 6/7 14 2626/27  2829  30




Vital statistics


 Purpose: To present an accurate account of the life of Christ and to present Christ as the perfect human and Savior. 
 Author: Luke - a doctor (Colossians 4:14), a Greek, and Gentile Christian. He is the only known Gentile author in the New Testament. Luke was a close friend and companion of Paul. He also wrote Acts, and the two books go together.  
 Original audience: Theophilus ("one who loves God"), gentiles. 
 Date written: About A.D. 60
 Setting: Luke wrote from Rome or possibly from Caesarea. 
 Key verses: "Jesus responded, 'Salvation has come to this home today, for this man has shown himself to be a true son of Abraham. For the Son of Man come to seek and save those who are lost" (19:9, 10)
 Key people: Jesus, Elizabeth, Zachariah, John the Baptist, Mary, the disciples, Herod the Great, Pilate, Mary Magdalene. 
 Key places: Bethlehem, Galilee, Judea, Jerusalem 
 Special features: This is the most comprehensive of the Gospels. The general vocabulary and diction show that the author was educated. He makes frequent references to illnesses and diagnoses. Luke stresses Jesus' relationships with people; emphasizes prayer, miracles, and angels; records inspired hymns of praises; gives a prominent place to women> Most of 9:51-18:35 is not found in any other Gospel. 




The Gospel of Luke

Prologue
1:1–4
Sources
Purpose
Recipients
Travelogue to
Jerusalem
9:51–19:27
Discipleship
Rejection
Pre-public
Life
1:5–4:13
Announcements
Births
Ministries
Entrance into
Jerusalem
19:28–21:38
Triumphal Entry
Temple Cleansing
Confrontations
Olivet Discourse
Galilean
Ministry
4:14–9:50
Rejection
Authentication
Instruction
Miracles
Revelation
Passion
Narrative
22:1–24:53
Passover Supper
Gethsemane
Arrest and Trial
Crucifixion
Resurrection
Jesus Christ: The Perfect Man
“For the son of man has come to seek and to save…” (19:10)
Luke provided an orderly account of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ for a Hellenistic readership. His purpose was to certify that Jesus was the promised Messiah and the Son of God, who became the Son of Man in order to provide the way for both Jews and Gentiles to enter the kingdom.
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Lc 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.





Jewish Feasts

Feast of
Month on
Jewish Calendar
Day
Corresponding
Month
References
Passover
Nisan
14
Mar. –Apr.
Ex. 12:1–14; Matt. 26:17–20
*Unleavened Bread
Nisan
15–21
Mar. –Apr.
Ex. 12:15–20
Firstfruits
Nisan
or Sivan
16
6
Mar. –Apr.
May–June
Lev. 23:9–14;
Num. 28:26
*Pentecost (Harvest or Weeks)
Sivan
6 (50 days after barley harvest)
May–June
Deut. 16:9–12; Acts 2:1
Trumpets, Rosh Hashanah
Tishri
1, 2
Sept. –Oct.
Num. 29:1–6
Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur
Tishri
10
Sept. –Oct.
Lev. 23:26–32; Heb. 9:7
*Tabernacles (Booths or Ingathering)
Tishri
15–22
Sept. –Oct.
Neh. 8:13–18; John 7:2
Dedication (Lights), Hanukkah
Chislev
25 (8 days)
Nov. –Dec.
John 10:22
Purim (Lots)
Adar
14, 15
Feb. –Mar.
Esth. 9:18–32
*The three major feasts for which all males of Israel were required to travel to the temple in Jerusalem (Ex. 23:14–19)
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Lc 2.36). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.





New Testament Political Rulers

Roman Emperor
Rulers of Palestine*
Herod the Great (37–4 b. c. )
Judea
Galilee and Perea
Other Provinces
Augustus Caesar
(31
b. c. a. d. 14)
Archelaus
(4
b. c. a. d. 6)
Herod Antipas
(4
b. c. a. d. 39)
Herod Philip II
(4
b. c. a. d. 34)
Coponius
(
a. d. 6–8)
(Iturea and Trachonitis)
Ambivius
(
a. d. 9–12)
Annius Rufus
(
a. d. 12–15)
Lysanias
(Dates uncertain)
Tiberius Caesar
(
a. d. 14–37)
Valerius Gratus
(
a. d. 15–26)
(Abilene)
Pontius Pilate
(
a. d. 26–36)
Caligula
(
a. d. 37–41)
Marcellus
(
a. d. 37)
Herod Agrippa I
(
a. d. 37–44)
Claudius
(
a. d. 41–54)
Cuspius Fadus
(
a. d. 44–46)
Tiberius Alexander
(
a. d. 46–48)
Herod Agrippa II
Ventidius Cumanus
(
a. d. 48–52)
(Began to rule in a. d. 34 in other provinces and in a. d. 39 in Galilee and Perea. )
M. Antonius Felix
(
a. d. 52–60)
Nero
(
a. d. 54–68)
Porcius Festus
(
a. d. 60–62)
Clodius Albinus
(
a. d. 62–64)
Gessius Florus
(
a. d. 64–66)
Galba, Otho, Vitellius
(
a. d. 68–69)
Jewish Revolt (a. d. 66–70)
Vespasian
(
a. d. 69–79)
Titus
(
a. d. 79–81)
Domitian
(
a. d. 81–96)
*The name Palestine was not applied to the territory of the Israelites until after the Romans had destroyed Jerusalem in a. d. 70. Apparently the name was intended as an insult. To find out why, see “What Should We Call ‘The Land’?” at Num. 34:2.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Lc 3.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.



The Parables of Jesus Christ



Matthew
Mark
Luke
A Lamp Under a Basket
5:14–16
4:21, 22
8:16, 17
11:33–36
A Wise Man Builds on Rock and a Foolish Man Builds on Sand
7:24–27
6:47–49
Unshrunk (New) Cloth on an Old Garment
9:16
2:21
5:36
New Wine in Old Wineskins
9:17
2:22
5:37, 38
The Sower
13:3–23
4:2–20
8:4–15
The Tares (Weeds)
13:24–30
The Mustard Seed
13:31, 32
4:30–32
13:18, 19
The Leaven
13:33
13:20, 21
The Hidden Treasure
13:44
The Pearl of Great Price
13:45, 46
The Dragnet
13:47–50
The Lost Sheep
18:12–14
15:3–7
The Unforgiving Servant
18:23–35
The Laborers in the Vineyard
20:1–16
The Two Sons
21:28–32
The Wicked Vinedressers
21:33–45
12:1–12
20:9–19
The Wedding Feast
22:2–14
The Fig Tree
24:32–44
13:28–32
21:29–33
The Wise and Foolish Virgins
25:1–13
The Talents
25:14–30
The Growing Seed
4:26–29
The Absent Householder
13:33–37
The Creditor and Two Debtors
7:41–43
The Good Samaritan
10:30–37
A Friend in Need
11:5–13
The Rich Fool
12:16–21
The Watchful Servants
12:35–40
The Faithful Servant and the Evil Servant
12:42–48
The Barren Fig Tree
13:6–9
The Great Supper
14:16–24
Building a Tower and a King Making War
14:25–35
The Lost Coin
15:8–10
The Lost Son
15:11–32
The Unjust Steward
16:1–13
The Rich Man and Lazarus
16:19–31
Unprofitable Servants
17:7–10
The Persistent Widow
18:1–8
The Pharisee and the Tax Collector
18:9–14
The Minas
19:11–27
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Lc 9.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.



Demons in the New Testament


     unclean spirits (Matt. 10:1; Mark 6:7)
     Legion, probably a collective name for a group of demons rather than the name of a single demon (Mark 5:9; Luke 8:30)
     wicked or evil spirits (Luke 7:21; Acts 19:12–13)
     a spirit of divination (Acts 16:16)
     deceiving spirits (1 Tim. 4:1)
     the spirit of error (1 John 4:6)
     spirits of demons (Rev. 16:14)
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.



Roman Leadership Positions


Position
or title
Name and/or New
Testament example
Description of
position
Historical
significance
Emperor or Caesar
Augustus Caesar, 31 b. c. a. d. 14 (Luke 2:1); Tiberius, a. d. 14–37 (Luke 3:1); Gaius Caligula, a. d. 37–41; Claudius, a. d. 41–54 (Acts 18:2); Nero, a. d. 54–68; Galba, a. d. 68–69; Otho, a. d. 69; Vitellius, a. d. 69; Vespasian, a. d. 69–79; Titus, a. d. 79–81; Domitian, a. d. 81–96; Nerva, a. d. 96–98; Trajan, a. d. 98–117
     Sovereign ruler of the Roman Empire.
     Augustus (Octavian) ruled with as much practicality and goodwill as possible.
     A standing army was needed to preserve law and order only in those outlying provinces still struggling with conflict. Wherever possible, provincial rule was delegated to local authorities or to Roman senators, called proconsuls.
     The title Caesar was taken from the family name of Julius Caesar, father of the Roman Empire.
Proconsul or Senator
Junius Gallio in Achaia (Acts 18:12); Sergius Paulus in Cyprus (Acts 13:7–12)
     Rulers of the senatorial provinces.
     The Senate met twice each month for legislative, administrative, and judicial purposes.
     Senators were chosen by lot to rule in the provinces.
     In the time of Augustus, the Senate comprised 600 members of the Roman aristocracy.
     Proconsuls were appointed for one-year terms and tended to act expediently, enriching themselves before returning to Rome, where they remained politically active.
     Senatorial provinces were usually older, more stable and nearer to Rome. Those named in the New Testament include Achaea, Asia, Bithynia, Crete, Cyrene, Cyprus, Macedonia, and Pontus.
     Roman law was approved by the Senate and implemented locally by procurators, proconsuls, and, when necessary, the Roman army.
     When the silversmiths of Ephesus complained against Paul (Acts 19:38), proconsuls were mentioned as the appropriate officials to settle the dispute.
Procurator
Pilate (Luke 3:1); Felix (Acts 23:24); Festus (Acts 24:27)
     Relatively low-ranking rulers of the imperial provinces.
     A procurator could gain political freedoms for the region he governed by demonstrating the area’s loyalty to Rome and reverence for the emperor.
     Privileges might include self-government, freedom from taxation, and freedom of religion.
     The procurator had to maintain law and order in his jurisdiction, putting down any threat to the social order, and, if necessary, calling in the Roman army.
     
     Imperial provinces, such as Judea, tended to lie on the frontiers of the empire, in areas of conflict.
     They required large standing armies to maintain order under the command of appointed governors.
     Provinces mentioned in the New Testament include Judea, Syria, Galatia, Cappadocia and Egypt.
Legate (also called governor)
Quirinius, in Syria (Luke 2:2)
     A subordinate ruler under a proconsul who commanded troops, handled administrative tasks and, in the larger provinces, collected revenue.
     At the time of Augustus, there were 11 senatorial provinces (under senatorial supervision) and 21 imperial provinces (directly under the emperor or his agents).
Prefect (also called governor)
     Commanded non-Roman auxiliary troops and governed the smaller provinces, mostly as chief financial officers.
     Senators, procurators, legates, and prefects all preferred that local leaders handle most legal problems; theirs was the court of last resort.
King
Herod the Great (Matt. 2:1); Herod Agrippa (Acts 25:24)
     Under Rome, little more than puppet governors appointed by the emperor.
     Even Egypt was ruled by a viceroy representing Rome as a successor to the pharaohs and the Ptolemaic dynasty (323–30 b. c. ). They ruled in the wake of Alexander the Great.
Tetrarch
Herod Antipas (Matt. 14:1; Acts 13:1); Lysanias; Herod Philip (Luke 3:1)
     Literally “ruler of a fourth part. ”
     The sons of Herod the Great disputed their father’s will in 4 b. c. Archelaus received half of his father’s territory, making him an ethnarch; Antipas and Philip both received one-fourth and became tetrarchs.
     Tetrarch came to designate any petty prince or local magistrate in the Middle East.
Praetorian Guard
Paul was “kept in Herod’s Praetorium” (Acts 23:35)
     Official guard of the Roman emperor and the elite corps of the empire.
     Their salaries and privileges exceeded those of other Roman soldiers.
     Originally stationed in Rome, the Praetorian Guard was later dispersed throughout the provinces.
     The Guard was disbanded in the third century a. d. , due to their threat to the emperor himself.
Centurion
The man who showed greater faith than any in Israel (Luke 7:2–10); the man who believed Jesus to be the Son of God after His death on the Cross (Matt. 27:54; Mark 15:39; Luke 23:47)
     A non-commissioned officer commanding at least 100 soldiers.
     Most served for life, much longer than the required 20 years.
     Sixty centuries made up a legion, a force of 6, 000 troops.
Sergeant
     A local law enforcement officer.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




New Testament Women


Mary, the virgin mother of Jesus, has a place of honor among the women of the New Testament. She is an enduring example of faith, humility, and service (Luke 1:26–56). Other notable women of the New Testament include the following:
Name
Description
Biblical Reference
Anna
Recognozed Jesus as the long-awaited Messiah
Luke 2:36–38
Bernice
Sister of Agrippa before whom Paul amde his defense
Acts 25:13
Candace
A queen of Whtiopis
Acts 8:27
Chloe
Woman who knew of divishions in the church at Corinth
1 Cor. 1:11
Claudia
Christian of Rome
2 Tim. 4:21
Damaris
Woman of Athens converted under Paul’s ministry
Acts 17:34
Dorcas (Tabitha)
Christion in Joppa who was raised from the dead by Peter
Acts 9:36–41
Drusilla
Wife of Felix, governor of Judea
Acts 24:24
Elizabeth
Mother of John the Baptist
Luke 1:5, 13
Eunice
Mother of Timothy
2 Tim. 1:5
Herodias
Queen who demanded the execution of John the Baptist
Matt. 14:3–10
Joanna
Provided for the material needs of Jesus
Luke 8:3
Lois
Grandmother of Timothy
2 Tim. 1:5
Lydia
Converted under Paul’s ministry in Philipi
Acts 16:14
Martha and Mary
Sisters of Lazarus; friends of Jesus
Luke 10:38–42
Mary Magdalene
Woman from whom Jesus cast out demons
Matt. 27:56–61; Mark 16:9
Phoebe
A servant, perhaps a deaconess, in the chuch at Cenchrea
Rom. 16:1, 2
Priscilla
Wife of Aquila; laborer with Paul at Corinth and Ephesus
Acts 18:2, 18, 19
Salome
Mother of Jesus’ disciples James and John
Matt. 20:20–24
Sapphira
Held back goods from the early Christian community
Acts 5:1
Susanna
Provided for the material needs of Jesus
Luke 8:3
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Lc 1.35). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




Titles of Christ


The two most popular titles or names Christians use in speaking of our Lord are Jesus, a translation of the Hebrew word Joshua, which means “Yahweh is Salvation,” and Christ, a transliteration of the Greek term Christos, meaning “Anointed One” or “Messiah.” Following are some other significant names or titles for Christ used in the New Testament. Each title expresses a distinct truth about Jesus and His relationship to believers.
Name or Title
Significance
Biblical Reference
Adam, Last Adam
First of the new race of the redeemed
1 Cor. 15:45
Alpha and Omega
The beginning and ending of all things
Rev. 21:6
Bread of Life
The one essential food
John 6:35
Chief Cornerstone
A sure foundation for life
Eph. 2:20
Chief Shepherd
Protector, sustainer, and guide
1 Pe. 5:4
Firstborn form the Dead
Leads us into resurrection and eternal life
Col. 1:18
Good Shepherd
Provider and caretaker
John 10:11
Great Shepherd of the Sheep
Trustworthy guide and protector
Heb. 13:20
High Priest
A perfect sacrifice for our sins
Heb. 3:1
Holy One of God
Sinless in His nature
Mark 1:24
Immanuel (God With Us)
Stands with us in all of life’s circumstances
Matt. 1:23
King of Kings, Lord of Lords
The Almighty, before whom every knee will bow
Rev. 19:16
Lamb of God
Gave His life as a sacrifice on our behalf
John 1:29
Light of the World
Brings hope in the midst of darkness
John 9:5
Lord of Glory
The power and presence of the living God
1 Cor. 2:8
Mediator between God and Men
Brings us into God’s presence redeemed and forgiven
1 Tim. 2:5
Only Begotten of the Father
The unique, one-of-a-kind Son of God
John 1:14
Prophet
Faithful proclaimer of the truths of God
Acts 3:22
Savior
Delivers from sin and death
Luke 1:47
Seed of Abraham
Mediator of God’s covenant
Gal. 3:16
Son of Man
Identifies with us in our humanity
Matt. 18:11
The Word
Present with God at the creation
John 1:1
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Lc 2.14). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.






The Twelve Apostles


Matthew 10:2–4
Mark 3:16–19
Luke 6:14–16
Acts 1:13
Simon Peter
Simon Peter
Simon Peter
Simon Peter
Andrew
James
Andrew
John
James
John
James
James
John
Andrew
John
Andrew
Philip
Philip
Philip
Philip
Bartholomew
Bartholomew
Bartholomew
Thomas
Thomas
Matthew
Matthew
Bartholomew
Matthew
Thomas
Thomas
Matthew
James (of Alphaeus)
James (of Alphaeus)
James (of Alphaeus)
James (of Alphaeus)
Thaddaeus1
Thaddaeus
Simon (the Zealot)
Simon (the Zealot)
Simon (the Cananite)2
Simon (the Cananite)
Judas (the James)
Judas (of James)
Judas Isacariot
Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Lc 6.13). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.





Events of Holy Week


The Gospel writers devoted much of their material to the events leading up to the crucifixion of Jesus. The final week of His earthly ministry began with the trumphal entry into Jerusalem and the “Hosannas” from the crowd that changed to cries of “Crucify Him” before the week was over. Jesus apparently spent most of the week teaching in the temple area during the day. His evenings were spent in the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus in Bethany. Sigificant events during this week included the plot of the of the Sanhedrin, Jesus’ betrayal and arrest, the trials of Jesus, His hourney to Golgotha down the Jerusalem street known today as the Via Dolorosa (“Way of Suffering”), and the resurrection, After His resurrection, Jesus ministered another forty days before His ascension.
Day
Event
Biblical Reference
Sunday
The triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Mark 11:1–11
Monday
Cleanses the temple in Jerusalem
Mark 11:15–19
Tuesday
The Danhedrin challenges Jesus’ authority
Jesus foretells the destruction of Jerusalem and His return
Mary anoints Jesus at Bethany
Judas bargains with the Jewish rulers to betray Jesus
Luke 20:1–8
Matt. 24; 25
John 12:2–8
Luke 22:3–6
Thursday
Jesus eats the Passover meal with His disciples and institutes the Memorial Supper
Prays in Gethsemane for His disciples
John 13:1–30
Mark 14:22–26
John 17
Friday
His betrayal and arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane
Jesus questioned by Annas, the former high priest
Condemned by Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin
Peter denies Jesus three times
Jesus is formally condemned by the Sanhedrin
Judas commits suicide
The trial of Jesus before Pilate
Jesus’ appearance before Herod Antipas
Fomally sentenced to death by Pilate
Jesus is mocked and crucified between two thieves
The veil of the temple is torn as Jesus dies
His burial in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea
Mark 14:43–50
John 18:12–24
Mark 14:53–65
John 18:15–27
Luke 22:66–71
Matt. 27:3–10
Luke 23:1–5
Luke 23:6–12
Luke 23:13–25
Mark 15:16–27
Matt. 27:51–56
John 19:31–42
Sunday
Jesus is raised from the dead
Luke 24:1–9
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Lc 22.47). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.





Gospel accounts found only in Luke




  1. 1:5-80. Special events leading up to birth of John the Baptist and Jesus

  2. 2:1-52. Events from Jesus’ childhood

  3. 3:19, 20. Herod puts John in prison

  4. 4:16-30. Jesus is rejected at Nazareth

  5. 5:1-11. Jesus provides a miraculous catch of fish

  6. 7:11-17. Jesus raises a widow’s son from the dead

  7. 7:36-50. A sinful woman anoints Jesus’s feet   

  8. 8:1-3. Women travel with Jesus

  9. 10:1-18:14. Events, miracles, and teaching during the months prior to Christ’s death

  10. 19:1-27. Jesus meets Zacchaeus and later tells the parable of the king’s 10 servants

  11. 23:6-12. Jesus’ trial before Herod

  12. 24:44-49. Some of Jesus’ last words before his ascension




The Blueprint


 A. BIRTH AND PREPARATION OF JESUS, THE SAVIOR 
(1:1-4:13)
 From an infant who could do nothing on his own, Jesus grew to become completely able to fulfill his mission on earth. He was fully human, developing in all ways like us. Yet he remained fully God. He took no shortcuts and was not isolated from the pressures and temptations of life. There are no shortcuts for us either as we prepare for lives of service to God.  
 B. MESSAGE AND MINISTRY OF JESUS, THE SAVIOR (4:14-21:38)
     1. Jesus's ministry in Galilee
     2. Jesus's ministry on the way to Jerusalem 
     3. Jesus's ministry in Jerusalem
 Jesus taught great crowds of people, especially through parables, which are stories that illustrate great truths. But only those with ears to hear will understand. We should pray that God's Spirit would help us understand the implications of these truths for our lives so we can become more and more like Jesus. 
 C. DEATH AND RESURRECTION OF JESUS, THE SAVIOR (22:1-24:53)  The Savior of the world was arrested and executed. But death could not destroy him, and Jesus came back to life and ascended to heaven. In Luke's careful, historical account, we receive the facts about Jesus' resurrection.
 We must not only believe that these facts are true, but we must also trust Christ as our Savior. It is shortsighted to neglect the facts, but how sad it is to accept the facts and neglect the forgiveness that Jesus offers to each of us.   




Seven Sabbath Miracles


Over the centuries, the Jewish religious leaders had added rule after rule to God's law. For example, God's law said the Sabbath is a day of rest (Exodus 20:10). But the religious leaders added to that law, creating one that said, "You cannot heal on the Sabbath" because that is "work." Seven times Jesus healed people on the Sabbath. In doing this, he was challenging these religious leaders to look beyond their rules to their true purpose-to honor God by helping those in need. Would God have been pleased if Jesus had ignored these people?

  • Jesus sends a demon out of a man.
  • Jesus heals Peter's mother-in-law.
  • Jesus heals a lame man by the pool of Bethesda.
  • Jesus heals a man with a deformed hand. 
  • Jesus restore a crippled woman.
  • Jesus heals a man with swollen arms and legs. 
  • Jesus heals a man born blind. 

  • Mark 1:21-28
  • Mark 1:29-31
  • John 5:1-18
  • Mark 3:16
  • Luke 13:10-17
  • Luke 14:1-6
  • John 9:1-16

 


Jesus's Trial


Jesus' trial was actually a series of hearings, carefully controlled to accomplish the death of Jesus. The verdict was predecided, but certain "legal" procedures were necessary. A lot of effort went into condemning and crucifying an innocent man. Jesus went through an unfair trial in our place so that we would not have to face a fair trial and receive the well-deserved punishment for our sins.

 Event Probable Reasons Reference
 Trial before Annas (powerful ex-high pries) Although ho longer the high priest, he may have still wielded much power John 18:13-23
 trial before Caiaphas ( the ruling high priest) To gather evidence for the full high council hearing to follow Matthew 26:57-68
 Mark 14:53-65
 Luke 22:54, 63-65
John 18:24
 Trial before the high council (Sanhedrin)  Formal religious trial and condemnation to death Matthew 27:1
 Mark 15:1
 Luke 22:66-71
 Trial before Pilate (highest Roman authority) All death sentences needed Roman approval  Mathew 27:2, 11-14
 Mark 15:1-5
 Luke 23:1-6
 John 18:28-38
 Trial before Herod (ruler of Galilee) A courteous and guilt-sharing act by Pilate because Jesus was from Galilee, Herod's district  Luke 23:7-12
 Trial before Pilate Pilate's last effort to avoid condemning an obviously innocent man  Matthew 27:15-26
 Mark 15:6-15
 Luke 23:13-25
 John 18:39-19:16