Graphics of Jeremiah

 Zephaniah becomes a prophetJeremiah becomes a prophet  King Josiah killed in battle Daniel taken captiveEzekiel begins to prophesy in Babylonia  Judah falls; Jerusalem destroyed; Jeremiah's ministry ends First exiles return to Judah 
 640 B.C. 627 609 605593  586 538



Vital statistics


 Purpose: To urge God's people ti turn from their sins and back to God
 Author: Jeremiah
 Original audience: Judah (the southern kingdom) and his capital city, Jerusalem
 Dare written: During Jeremiah's ministry approximately 627-586 B.C.
 Setting: Jeremiah ministry under Judah's last five kings-Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah. The nation was sliding quickly toward destruction and was eventually conquered by Babylon in 586 B.C. (2 Kings 21-25). The prophet Zephaniah preceded Jeremiah, and Habakkuk was Jeremiah's contemporary.  
 Key verses: "Your wickedness will bring its own punishment. Your turning from me will shame you. You will see what an evil, bitter thing it is to abandon the Lord your God and not to fear him. I, the Lord, the Lord of Heaven's Armies, have spoken!" (2:19) 
 Key people: Judah's kings, Baruch, Ebed-melech, King Nebuchadnezzar, the Recabites  
 Key places: Anathoth, Jerusalem, Ramah, Egypt
 Special feature:  This book is a combination of history, poetry and biography. Jeremiah often used symbolism to communicate his message.   


The Rulers and Prophets of Jeremiah's Time


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Kings of

Babylon

    

Neo- Babylonian Empire

     

    Nebopolassar      625        605

605  Nebuchadnezzar  562

   
        
    

612 Assyria and Nineveh are destroyed by  Babylon

 605 Egypt defeated Babylon at Battle of Carchemish 
      
    

Jehoahaz (Joahaz/Shallum) three months

  Jehoiachin (Coniah or Jeconiiah) 3 months
 

 Last Five Kings of Judah

   

640      Josiah       609

Jehoiakim (Eliakim)

609  -  597

Zedekiah (Mattamih)

597 - 586

    
        
            
           

70 - years Jewish Captivity      536

 
            Three Stages of Captivity 
          605  Daniel and friends     
           2 597 Ezekiel and ten thousand captives  
            3 586 Destruction of Jerusalem  
 

 Jeremiah and His Contemporary Prophets(Southern Kingdom)

  

Nahum

650                            620

         
            
     

JEREMIAH

627        (53 years of ministry)        574

    
         
       636 Zephaniah 623Habakkuk 621   609593        Ezekiel        559   
             
          605                               Daniel                             536 
710700690680670660650640630620610600590580570560550540530

("Discover the Bible for yourself" by Kay Arthur .p139)



The Call of Jeremiah


Who?

 Where?

When?

Why?

Origin?

Jeremiah’s response

God corrects him

God enables him
The son of Hilkiah (1:1) 

Anathoth in Benjamin (
1:1)

The reign of Josiah, 626 
b.c. (1:2)

Ordained a prophet to the nations (
1:5)

Decided before his birth (
1:5)

“I am a youth” (
1:6)

“I am with you” (
1:78)

Given words of power (
1:910)
The dramatic character of Jeremiah’s call highlights the principle that when God calls a person to a task, He also equips that person for the task. Like Jeremiah, we list our weaknesses and limitations, But God promises His enabling presence. Like Jeremiah, we anticipate fearful situations. But God promises His deliverance. God does not call us to a task He cannot help us to fulfill.
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Jr 1.7). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.






Jeremiah’s Times


686     Manasseh becomes sole king
648     Josiah born
642     Amon succeeds Manasseh as king
640     Josiah becomes king
633     Josiah at 16 seeks after God
628     Josiah at 20 begins reforms
627     Jeremiah at 20 called as prophet
621     Mosaic Law found in the temple
612     Nineveh destroyed as Nahum prophesied
609     Josiah slain in battle at Megiddo;
     Jehoiakim becomes king
605     Babylon defeats Egypt at Carchemish;
     Daniel, others taken hostage to Babylon;
     Nebuchadnezzar becomes king of Babylon
604     Nebuchadnezzar receives tribute in Palestine
601     Nebuchadnezzar defeated near Egypt
598     Jehoiakim set aside; Jehoiachin rules from December 9 to March 16, 597 and is deported April 22 to Babylon
597     Zedekiah becomes king in Judah
588     Babylon lays sedge to Jerusalem on January 15
587     Jeremiah imprisoned (Jer. 32:1–2)
586     Zedekiah flees July 18; destruction of city begins August 14; Gedaliah killed and Jews migrate to Egypt against God’s command October
Jeremiah’s Messages During Josiah’s Reign
2:1–3:5
On Judah’s sinful heart
3:6–6:30
Jerusalem to be destroyed
7:1–10:25
Ruin and exile coming
18:1–20:18
Message on the potter
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (404). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.





Godly Fathers, Troubled Sons


Father
Son(s)
Isaac: pleaded with God to give his wife Rebekah a child (Gen. 25:21).
Jacob: used deception to deprive his brother of his father’s blessing, touching off generations of conflict (Gen. 27:6–29, 41–46); later began to fear the Lord (32:24–32).
Aaron: helped lead the people of Israel during the Exodus, and was consecrated as the nation’s first high priest (Ex. 28:1).
Nadab and Abihu: dishonored the Lord in their official duties by offering “profane fire” before the Lord (Lev. 10:1–3).
Gideon: obeyed God’s call to lead the Israelites in a successful rout of the Midianites (Judg. 6:11–14; 7:19–22).
Abimelech: hired assassins to murder his 70 brothers, and led a treacherous assault on Shechem (Judg. 9).
Manoah: worshiped the Lord during a period of great spiritual darkness (Judg. 13).
Samson: dishonored his parents’ Nazirite vow, visited prostitutes, and gave little indication of fearing the Lord until the end of his life (Judg. 14–16).
Samuel: judged Israel with integrity and anointed its first two kings (1 Sam. 3:19–21; 9:27–10:1; 16:11–13).
Joel and Abijah: accepted bribes and violated justice in their positions as judges in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:1–5).
David: served as God’s choice for Israel’s king, and described as a “man after God’s own heart” (1 Sam. 13:14).
Amnon: raped his half sister Tamar, provoking his half brother to murder him (2 Sam. 13:1–18).
Absalom: had Amnon assassinated, and later led a rebellion against his father David, hoping to grab the throne for himself (13:21–33; 15:1–18:33).
Adonijah: schemed to wrest the right of succession away from his brother Solomon (1 Kin. 1).
Solomon: turned away from the Lord in later years because of the idolatry of his numerous wives (11:1–8).
Solomon: was granted unprecedented wisdom by God (1 Kin. 3:5–15), and built and dedicated the temple (5:1–6:38; 8:1–64).
Rehoboam: rejected his father’s wise counselors in favor of his own companions, whose advice triggered a permanent split in the kingdom (1 Kin. 12:1–19).
Hezekiah: enacted numerous reforms, and remained faithful to the Lord during a siege of Jerusalem by the Assyrians (2 Kin. 18–20).
Manasseh: thoroughly reversed his father’s reforms, reinstituted idolatry, and ruled by violence (2 Kin. 21).
Josiah: cleaned out the temple, renewed the covenant, and restored true worship (2 Kin. 22:1–23:30).
Jehoahaz: rejected his father’s ways during a brief reign marked by evil (2 Kin. 23:31–33).
Jehoiakim: returned to idolatry, overtaxed the people, had the prophet Urijah executed, and actively opposed Jeremiah (2 Kin. 23:35–37; Jer. 26:20–21; 36:26).
Zedekiah: continued the pattern of evil initiated by his brothers (2 Kin. 24:18–20), serving as a weak, vacillating ruler.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Jr 37.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.


Jeremiah’s Messages During

Jehoiakim’s Reign

11:1–13:14     The broken covenant
14–15     Prayers are fruitless
16–17     Jeremiah’s celibacy
22     The king rejected
23     False prophets charged
25     Nebuchadnezzar, God’s servant
26     Jeremiah threatened with death
35     Example of the Recabites
45     Promise to Baruch
46–48     Against foreign nations
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (406). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.




Messages In Zedekiah’s Time

Chapter 21     Advice for the king
Chapter 24     Zedekiah abandoned
Chapter 27     Judah must submit
Chapter 28     God’s iron yoke
Chapter 29     Letter to the exiles
Chapter 34     Judah’s broken covenant
Chapters 37–39     Jerusalem’s fall
Chapter 49     The nations warned
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (409). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.




Relationship between Law and Other Covenants


Other Covenants
Law Covenant
1.     Express divine commitment as a promise/oath.
1.     Express divine commitment as a promise/oath.
2.     Expressed purpose not related to human actions.
2.     Express purpose ?S linked with actions of His people in obeying or disobeying His commandments.
3.     Focus is on the future and what God intends to do at history’s end.
3.     Focus is on the present and how God will ureas living generations.
4.     The covenants state an unchanging purpose and intention of God and will not be changed.
4.     The Law is temporary, to be replaced by a better, New Covenant.
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (416). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.




Time Line of Jeremiah



 Power Shift Year Major Event King Response / Efect
  626 Neo-Babylonia started by Nabopolassar
 Josiah 
(640-609)
 In 622, Spiritual Revival by Josiah's reforms
 Assyria > Babylonia 612 Fall of Niniveth (Assyria) by Babylonia  Josiah - Enjoyed independence until 609
  609 1st Battle of Carchemish
- Josiah was dead
- Jehoahaz (3 month)
- Jehoakim (609-598: 11 years) 
 - Josiah tried to stop Egypt (NEco 2) in Megiddo
 - Jehoahaz was taken to Egypt 
 - Neco appointed Jehoakim as vassal king.
 Egypt > Babylonia 605
 2nd Battle of Carchemish 
       Babylonia defeated Egypt 
 1st Deportation
       Some vessels of Temple (Dan 1:2)
       Daniel was taken captive
 Jehoakim  Johoakim switched alliance from Egypt to Babylon
  601 Babylonia suffered a major defeat by Egypt Jehoakim - Jehoakim switched alliance from Babylon to Egypt
  597
 2nd Deportation by Babylonia
- 10.000 captive : officials, warriors, artisans 
- Ezekiel was taken to Babylon
- Precious vessels to Temple (2 Chron 36:10)
 Jehoakim was dead
 Jehoiachin (3 month)
 Zedekiah (597-586)
 - Jehoakim was dead during the attack
 - Jehoiachin was taken to Babylon
 - Zedekiah was installed by Babylon as vassal king 
  588 Pharaoh Hopra enticed Judah to revolt from Babylon Zedekiah - Zedekiah agreed to revolt
  586
 Fall of Jerusalem
 - Temple destroyed
 3rd Deportation
 - Exiled rest of people and artisans
 - Left some of the poorest people
 Zedekiah - Zedekiah was taken to Babylon
  581
 Wiping the Dish
4th Deportation
  - Jeremiah was taken to Egypt 




Jeremiah

Served as a prophets to Judah from 627 B.C. nil the exile in 585 B.C
 
 CLIMATE OF THE TIME

 
 Society was deteriorating economically, politically, spiritually. War and captivity dominated the world scene. God's word was deemed offensive. 

 
 MAIN MESSAGE

 
 Repentance from sin would postpone Judah's coming judgment at the hands of Babylon. 

 
 IMPORTANCE OF MESSAGE

 
 Repentance is one of the greatest needs in our immoral world. God's promises to the faithful shine brightly by bringing hope for tomorrow and strength today.   

 
 CONTEMPORARY PROPHETS 

 
 Habakkuk (612-588 B.C.), Zephaniah (640-621 B.C.)







The Blueprint 


 
A. GOD'S JUDGMENT ON JUDAH (1:1045:5)

  1. The call of Jeremiah
  2. Jeremiah condemns Judah for its sins
  3. Jeremiah prophesies destruction
  4. Jeremiah accuses Judah's leaders
  5. Restoration is promised 
  6. God's promised judgment arrives 
   Jeremiah confronts many people with their sins: kings; false prophets, those at the temples, and those at the gates. A lack of response made Jeremiah wonder if he was doing any good at all. He often felt discouraged and sometimes bitter. To bring such gloomy messages to these people was a hard task. We, too, have a responsibility to bring this news to a fallen world: Those who continue in their sinful ways are eternally doomed. Although we may feel discouraged at the lack of response, we must press on to tell others about the consequences of sin and the hope that God offers. Those who tell people only what they want to hear are being unfaithful to God's message.   
 B. GOD'S JUDGMENT ON THE NATIONS (46:1-52:34)
  1. Prophecies about foreign nations
  2. The fall of Jerusalem
   Jeremiah lived to see many of his prophecies come true - most notably the fall of Jerusalem. The fulfillment of this and others prophecies against the foreign nations came as a result of sin. These who refuse to confess their sin bring judgment upon themselves.  






The Kings of Jeremiah's lifetime



King Story of his reign  Dates of his reign Character of reign Jeremiah message to the king
 Josiah 2 King 22:1-23:30 640-609 B.C. Mostly good 3:6-25
 Jehoahaz 2 Kings 23:31-33 609 B.C Evil 22:10-12
 Jehoiakim 2 Kings 23:34-24:7 609-598 B.C. Evil 22:13-23; 25:1-38; 26:1-24; 35:1-19;
 36:1-32
 Jehoiachin 2 Kings 24:8-17 598-597 B.C. Evil 13:18-27; 22:24-30
  Zedekiah 2 Kings 24:18-25:26 597-586 B.C. Evil 21:1-14; 24:8-10; 27:12-22; 32:1-5;
 34:1-22; 37:1-21; 38:1-28; 51:59-64




God's object lessons in Jeremiah


 ReferenceObject Lesson Significance 
 1:11, 12 Branch from an almond tree God will carry out his threats of punishment. 
 1:13-15 Pot of boiling water, spilling southward   An enemy army will invade from the north
 13:1-11 A rotten linen loincloth  Because the people refused to listen to God, they had become useless, good for nothing like a useless linen loincloth.
 18:1-17 Potter's clay   God could destroy his sinful people if he so desired. This is a warning to them to repent before he is forced to bring judgment. 
 19:1-12 A shattered clay jar God would smash Judah just as Jeremiah smashed the clay jar. 
 24:1-10 Two baskets of figs Good figs represent God's remnant. Bad figs are the people left behind.  
 27:2-11 Yoke Any nation who refused to submit to Babylon's yoke of control would be punished. 
 43:8-13 Large rocks The rocks marked the place where Nebuchadnezzar would set his throne when God allowed him to conquer Egypt. 
 51:59-64 Scroll sunk in the river Babylon would sink to rise no more. 





Function of the Prophets



 Period Function Audience Message Examples

 PRE-MONARCHY
 
Mouthpiece-leader
 
People
 
National guidance
Maintenance of justice
Spiritual overseer

 Moses
Deborah

 TRANSITION:
Samuel


 PRE-CLASSICAL

 Mouthpiece-leader
 
King and court

 Military advice
Pronouncement of rebuke or blessing


 Nathan
Elijah
Elisha
Micaiah

 
CLASSICAL
 
Mouthpiece-social/spiritual commentator

 People

 Rebuke concerning current condition of society; leads to warning of captivity, destruction, exile and promise of eventual restoration 
Call for justice and repentance

 
TRANSITION:
North - Jonah
South - Isaiah

Writing prophets
Best example
Jeremiah