Isaiah Time

 Amos becomes a prophet Hosea becomes a prophetMicah becomes a prophet Isaiah 
becomes a prophet  
Ahaz becomes king of Judah Hoshea becomes king of Israel Israel falls to the Assyrians  Hezekiah becomes king of JudahSennacherib surrounds Jerusalem  Manasseh becomes king of JudahIsaiah's ministry ends  Josiah becomes king of Judah
760 B.C.  753 742740  735 732722  715 701 697 681 640

Vital statistics

 To call the nation of Judah back to God and to tell of God's salvation through the Messiah
 Author: The prophet Isaiah son of Amoz 
 Date written: The events of chapters 1-39 occurred during Isaiah's ministry, so they were probably written about 70 B.C. Chapters 40-66, however, may have been written near the end of his life, about 681 B.C.
 Setting:  Isaiah is speaking and writing mainly to Jerusalem
 Key verse: "But he was pierced for our rebellion, crushed for our sins. He was beaten so we could be whole. He was whipped so we could be healed" (53:5) 
 Key people: Isaiah; his two sons, Shear-jashub and Maher-shalal-hash-baz
 Special features: The book of Isaiah contain both prose and poetry and uses personification (attributing personal qualities to divine being or inanimate objects). Also, many of the prophecies in Isaiah contain predictions that foretell a soon-to-occur event and a distant future event at the same time.   

The Rulers and Prophets of Isaiah's Time


Shalmaneser V 727-722


Kings of Assyria


Tiglath-pileser III(Tiglath-pilneser III) 745                   727

Sargon II

722               705


705      681


Kings of Israel  

(Northern Kingdom)


Shallum 1 month

 Pekajiah   742    740

 Northern 10 tribes taken captive by King Shalmaneser V of Assyria in 722 B.C

 Menahen 752         742

Hoshea 732   722


752    Pekah   732


Prophets to Israel

(Northern Kingdom)


755       Hosea       714


Kings of Judah

(Southern Kingdom)

790       Uzziah or Azariah       739


750 Jotham 731


735  Ahaz  715


730      Hezekiah     686

          797 Manasseh

Isaiah and His

Contemporary Prophets

(Southern Kingdom)



739                                           681


733 Micah 701

("Discover the Bible for yourself" by Key Arthur. p.133)

Some Names for God in the Prophets

Branch (Zech. 3:8; 6:12)
The Messiah who will come from the family of David to rule in righteousness.
Commander (Is. 55:4)
The military leader of His people.
Counselor (Is. 9:6)
The Messiah who will carry the government on His shoulders.
Desire of Nations (Hag. 2:7)
The One to whom all nations will eventually come.
Everlasting Father (Is. 9:6)
The eternally compassionate One.
Foundation (Is. 28:16)
The One on whom one can safely build.
Fountain (Zech. 13:1)
The One who removes sin and impurity.
Lawgiver (Is. 33:22)
The absolute standard of moral conduct.
Messiah (Dan. 9:25–26)
The anointed Deliverer.
Mighty God (Is. 9:6)
The powerful and sovereign Lord.
Purifier (Mal. 3:3)
The One who cleans away that which hinders or destroys.
Redeemer (Is. 59:20; 60:16)
The One who frees His people by paying a price.
Refiner (Mal. 3:3)
The One who uses trials to remove sin as fire refines gold.
Refuge (Is. 25:4)
The Person in whom one can find safety and protection.
Righteousness (Jer. 23:6; 33:16)
The One who is completely without sin and filled with absolute goodness.
Rod (Is. 11:1)
The Messiah who is descended from Jesse.
Servant (Is. 42:1; 49:5–7)
The faithful Son of God who does His Father’s will.
Wonderful (Is. 9:6)
God incomprehensible and good.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Four “Servant Songs” of Isaiah

The Just Servant (Is. 42:1–4)
The Lord’s Servant will bring about justice for Jew and Gentile alike.
The Called Servant (Is. 49:1–6)
The Lord’s Servant will be called from His mother’s womb to the task of restoring the tribes of Israel and bringing a light to the Gentiles.
The Wise Servant (Is. 50:4–9)
The Lord will give His Servant wisdom to withstand the attacks of His enemies.
The Suffering Servant (Is. 52:13–53:12)
The Lord’s Servant will take upon Himself the sins of people.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Suffering Servant

Isaiah’s Prophecy
He would be exalted (Is. 52:13)
Phil. 2:9
He would be disfigured by suffering (Is 52:14; 53:2)
Mark 15:17, 19
He would make a blood atonement (Is. 52:15)
1 Pet. 1:2
He would be widely rejected (Is. 53:1, 3)
John 12:37–38
He would bear our sins and sorrows (Is. 53:4–5)
Rom. 4:25; 1 Pet. 2:24–25
He would be our substitute (Is. 56:6, 8)
2 Cor. 5:21
He would voluntarily accept our guilt and punishment (Is. 53:7–8)
John 10:11; 19:30
He would be buried in a rich man’s tomb (Is. 53:9)
John 19:38–42
He would save those who believed in Him (Is. 53:10–11)
John 3:16; Acts 16:31
He would die on behalf of transgressors (Is. 53:12)
Mark 15:27–28; Luke 22:37
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Is 53.5). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Oracles

Isa. 13:1–14:23
Against Babylon
Isa. 14:24–27
Against Assyria
Isa. 14:28–32
Against Philistia
Isa. 15–16
Against Moab
Isa. 17
Against Damascus
Isa. 18
Against Cush
Isa. 19
Against Egypt
Isa. 20
Against Egypt & Cush
Isa. 21:1–10
Against Babylon
Isa. 21:11–12
Against Edom
Isa. 21:13–17
Against Arabia
Isa. 22
Against Jerusalem
Isa. 23
About Tyre
Isa. 24
Portrait of judgments
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (378). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.

The Suffering Servant

Jesus fulfills Isaiah’s prophecy of the Suffering Servant.

 The ProphecyThe Fulfillment 

He will be exalted (52:13)
Philippians 2:9
He will be disfigured by suffering (52:14; 53:2)
Mark 15:17, 19
He will be widely rejected (53:1, 3)
John 12:37, 38
He will bear our sins and sorrows (53:4)
Romans 4:25; 1 Peter 2:24, 25
He will make a blood atonement (53:5)
Romans 3:25
He will be our substitute (53:6, 8)
2 Corinthians 5:21
He will voluntarily accept our guilt and punishment (53:7)
John 10:11
He will be buried in a rich man’s tomb (53:9)
John 19:38-42
He will justify many from their sin (53:10, 11)
Romans 5:15-19
He will die with transgressors (53:12)
Mark 15:27, 28; Luke 22:37
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Is 53.6). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Prophetic Points of History



Own Time

Captivity and RestorationIntertestamental 
Christ's First ComingChrist's Second Coming New Heaven New Earth


Served as a prophet to Judah from 740-681 B.C.

  Society was in a great upheaval. Under King Ahaz and King Manasseh, the people reverted to idolatry, and there was even child sacrifice.

 Although judgment from other nations was inevitable, the people could still have a special relationship with God.  


 Sometimes we must suffer judgment and discipline before we are restored to God. 

 Hosea (753-7125 B.C), Micah (742-687 B.C.)

The Nations in Prophecy

(prophets listed in chronological order)

  Amos Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Miscellaneous
 Babylon  13:1-14::23
like Sodom
and Gomorrah;
no survivors
desolation; ruin
  Habakkuk 2:6-17
 Philistia  1:6-8
will perish; destruction
famine; defeated
from north
Conquered from
north; destruction;
mourning remnant
remnant cut off
 Moab 2:1-3
Fire, death
ruin; mourning;
some remnant
shame; exile;
future restoration
 Damascus 1:3-5
Cut off, exile
Ruin, but a remnant left
Helpless; destruction
 Egypt  19
Civil war;
economic decline;
military defeat;
conquered by
To be
conquered by
by Babylon

 Edom 1:11-12
but possibility
of survival
Flight; ruin;
object of horror;
like Sodom
and Gomorrah
Laid waste

no survivors
 Tyre 1:9-10
of citadels
after 70 years
 Amon 1:13-15
Desolate heap
by Israel; exile
future restoration
 Nineveh     Nahum:
Control of Judah
ended; besieged;

The Blueprint

 A. WORDS OF JUDGMENT (1:1-39:8)
  1. The sins of Israel and Judah
  2. Judgment against heathen nations 
  3. God's purpose in judgment 
  4. Jerusalem's true and false hopes 
  5. Events during the reign of Hezekiah  
  The 39 chapters in the first half of Isaiah generally  carry the message of judgment for sin. Isaiah brings the message of judgment to Judah. Israel, and the surrounding pagan nations. The people of Judah had a from of godliness, but in their hearts they were corrupt. Isaiah's warnings were intended to purity the people by helping them understand God's true nature and message. However, they ignored the repeated warnings that Isaiah brought. We need to heed the prophetic voice and not repeat their error. 
 B. WORDS OF COMFORT (40:1-66:24)
  1. Israel's release from captivity 
  2. The future Redeemer 
  3. The future Kingdom  
  The 27 chapters in the second half of Isaiah generally bring a message of forgiveness, comfort, and hope. This message of hope looks forward to the coming of the Messiah. Isaiah speaks more about the Messiah than does any other Old Testament prophet. He describes the Messiah as both a suffering Servant and a sovereign Lord. The fact that the Messiah was to be both a suffering Servant and a sovereign Lord could not be understood clearly until New Testament times. Based on what Jesus Christ has done, God freely offers forgiveness to all who turn to him in faith. This is God's message of comfort to us because those who heed it find eternal peace and fellowship with him.

Isaiah Overview

Isaiah Fulfilled at Christ's First Advent

Reference Fulfilled Literally 
 7:14  The virgin birth of Christ (Mt 1:23)
 8:14, 15 A stone that causes people to stumble and a rock that makes them fall (Ro 9:33; 1Ped 2:8)
 8:17 Christ's hope and trust in God (Heb 2:13a)
 8:18 The Son of GOd and the children of God (Heb 2:13b)
 9:1, 2 The arrival of Jesus in the areas of Zebulun and Naphtali (Mt 4:12-16)
 9:6a The birth of Immanuel (Mt 1:23; Lk 1:31-33; 2:7, 11)
 11:1 Revival of the Davidic dynasty (Mt 1:6, 16; Ac 13:23; Rev 5:5; 22:16)
 12:3 Water from the wells of salvation (Jn 4:10, 14)
 25:8 The swallowing up of death (1Co 15:54)
 28:11 The gift of tongues as an authenticating sign of God's messengers (1Co 14:21, 22)
 28:16 Incarnation of Jesus Christ (Mt 21:42)
 29:18; 35:5 Jesus's healing of the physically deaf and blind (Mt 11:5)
 40:3-5 Preaching of John the Baptist (My 3:3; Mk 1:3, Lk 3:4-6; Jn 1:23)
 42:1a, 2, 3 Christ at His baptism (Mt 3:16, 17) and transfiguration (Mt 17:5) and His general demeanor throughout His first advent
 42:6 Christ extended the benefits of the New Covenant to the Church (Heb 8:6, 10-12)
 42:7 Jesus healed physical blindness and provided liberty for the spiritual captives (Mt 11:5; Lk 4:18)
 42:7 Jesus removel spiritual darkness at His first coming (Mt 4:16)
 50:6  Jesus beaten and spat upon (Mt 26:67; 27:26m 40; Mk 14:65; 15:19; Lk 22:63; Jn 18:22)
 50:7 Jesus resolutely setting His face to go to Jerusalem (Lk 9:51)
 53:1 Israel failed to recognize her Messiah (Jn 12:38)
 53:4 Jesus healed sick people as a symbol of His bearing of sin (Mt 8:16, 17)
 53:7, 8 Philip identifies Jesus as the one about whom the prophet wrote (Ac 8:32. 33)
 53:7 Jesus remained silent at all phases of His trial. (Mt 26:63; 27:12-14; Mk 14:61; 15:5; Lk 23:9; Jn 19:9; Jn 19:9; 1Pe 2:23)
 53:7 Jesus was the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (Jn 1:29; 1Pe 1:18, 19; Rev 5:6)
 53:9 Jesus was completely innocent of all charges against Him (1Pe 2:22)
 53:12 Jesus saw the need to be crucified between two criminals (Lk 22:37)
 54:13 Jesus saw those who come to Him at His first advent as taught by God (Jn 6:45)
 55:3 Christ's resurrection was prerequisite to His someday occupying David's throne on earth (Ac 13:34) 
 61:1, 2a Jesus saw His first-advent ministry as a spiritual counterpart of His second-advent deliverance of Israel (Lk 4:18, 19) 
 62:11 Jesus fulfilled the call to the daughter of Zion in His triumphal entry (Mt 21:5)