Isaiah's Time

 Amos becomes a prophet Hosea becomes a prophetMicah becomes a prophet Isaiah 
becomes a prophet  
Ahaz becomes king of Judah Hoshea becomes king of Israel Israel falls to the Assyrians  Hezekiah becomes king of JudahSennacherib surrounds Jerusalem  Manasseh becomes king of JudahIsaiah's ministry ends  Josiah becomes king of Judah
760 B.C.  753 742740  735 732722  715 701 697 681 640



Vital statistics


Purpose:
 To call the nation of Judah back to God and to tell of God's salvation through the Messiah
 Author: The prophet Isaiah son of Amoz 
 Date written: The events of chapters 1-39 occurred during Isaiah's ministry, so they were probably written about 70 B.C. Chapters 40-66, however, may have been written near the end of his life, about 681 B.C.
 Setting:  Isaiah is speaking and writing mainly to Jerusalem
 Key verse: "But he was pierced for our rebellion, crushed for our sins. He was beaten so we could be whole. He was whipped so we could be healed" (53:5) 
 Key people: Isaiah; his two sons, Shear-jashub and Maher-shalal-hash-baz
 Special features: The book of Isaiah contain both prose and poetry and uses personification (attributing personal qualities to divine being or inanimate objects). Also, many of the prophecies in Isaiah contain predictions that foretell a soon-to-occur event and a distant future event at the same time.   


The Rulers and Prophets of Isaiah's Time


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Shalmaneser V 727-722

 
 

Kings of Assyria

    

Tiglath-pileser III(Tiglath-pilneser III) 745                   727

Sargon II

722               705

Sennacherib

705      681

     
     
 

Kings of Israel  

(Northern Kingdom)

 

Shallum 1 month

 Pekajiah   742    740

 Northern 10 tribes taken captive by King Shalmaneser V of Assyria in 722 B.C
     

 Menahen 752         742

Hoshea 732   722

     
     

752    Pekah   732

 
 

Prophets to Israel

(Northern Kingdom)

   

755       Hosea       714

    
        
        
 

Kings of Judah

(Southern Kingdom)

790       Uzziah or Azariah       739

     
     

750 Jotham 731

     
       

735  Ahaz  715

   
       

730      Hezekiah     686

 
          797 Manasseh
 

Isaiah and His

Contemporary Prophets

(Southern Kingdom)

     

ISAIAH

739                                           681

      
      
       

733 Micah 701

   
          
840830820810800790780770760750740730720710700690680
("Discover the Bible for yourself" by Key Arthur. p.133)



Some Names for God in the Prophets


Branch (Zech. 3:8; 6:12)
The Messiah who will come from the family of David to rule in righteousness.
Commander (Is. 55:4)
The military leader of His people.
Counselor (Is. 9:6)
The Messiah who will carry the government on His shoulders.
Desire of Nations (Hag. 2:7)
The One to whom all nations will eventually come.
Everlasting Father (Is. 9:6)
The eternally compassionate One.
Foundation (Is. 28:16)
The One on whom one can safely build.
Fountain (Zech. 13:1)
The One who removes sin and impurity.
Lawgiver (Is. 33:22)
The absolute standard of moral conduct.
Messiah (Dan. 9:25–26)
The anointed Deliverer.
Mighty God (Is. 9:6)
The powerful and sovereign Lord.
Purifier (Mal. 3:3)
The One who cleans away that which hinders or destroys.
Redeemer (Is. 59:20; 60:16)
The One who frees His people by paying a price.
Refiner (Mal. 3:3)
The One who uses trials to remove sin as fire refines gold.
Refuge (Is. 25:4)
The Person in whom one can find safety and protection.
Righteousness (Jer. 23:6; 33:16)
The One who is completely without sin and filled with absolute goodness.
Rod (Is. 11:1)
The Messiah who is descended from Jesse.
Servant (Is. 42:1; 49:5–7)
The faithful Son of God who does His Father’s will.
Wonderful (Is. 9:6)
God incomprehensible and good.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




The Four “Servant Songs” of Isaiah


The Just Servant (Is. 42:1–4)
The Lord’s Servant will bring about justice for Jew and Gentile alike.
The Called Servant (Is. 49:1–6)
The Lord’s Servant will be called from His mother’s womb to the task of restoring the tribes of Israel and bringing a light to the Gentiles.
The Wise Servant (Is. 50:4–9)
The Lord will give His Servant wisdom to withstand the attacks of His enemies.
The Suffering Servant (Is. 52:13–53:12)
The Lord’s Servant will take upon Himself the sins of people.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.



The Suffering Servant


Isaiah’s Prophecy
Fulfillment
He would be exalted (Is. 52:13)
Phil. 2:9
He would be disfigured by suffering (Is 52:14; 53:2)
Mark 15:17, 19
He would make a blood atonement (Is. 52:15)
1 Pet. 1:2
He would be widely rejected (Is. 53:1, 3)
John 12:37–38
He would bear our sins and sorrows (Is. 53:4–5)
Rom. 4:25; 1 Pet. 2:24–25
He would be our substitute (Is. 56:6, 8)
2 Cor. 5:21
He would voluntarily accept our guilt and punishment (Is. 53:7–8)
John 10:11; 19:30
He would be buried in a rich man’s tomb (Is. 53:9)
John 19:38–42
He would save those who believed in Him (Is. 53:10–11)
John 3:16; Acts 16:31
He would die on behalf of transgressors (Is. 53:12)
Mark 15:27–28; Luke 22:37
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Is 53.5). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




The Oracles


Isa. 13:1–14:23
Against Babylon
Isa. 14:24–27
Against Assyria
Isa. 14:28–32
Against Philistia
Isa. 15–16
Against Moab
Isa. 17
Against Damascus
Isa. 18
Against Cush
Isa. 19
Against Egypt
Isa. 20
Against Egypt & Cush
Isa. 21:1–10
Against Babylon
Isa. 21:11–12
Against Edom
Isa. 21:13–17
Against Arabia
Isa. 22
Against Jerusalem
Isa. 23
About Tyre
Isa. 24
Portrait of judgments
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (378). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.






The Suffering Servant


Jesus fulfills Isaiah’s prophecy of the Suffering Servant.

 The ProphecyThe Fulfillment 

He will be exalted (52:13)
Philippians 2:9
He will be disfigured by suffering (52:14; 53:2)
Mark 15:17, 19
He will be widely rejected (53:1, 3)
John 12:37, 38
He will bear our sins and sorrows (53:4)
Romans 4:25; 1 Peter 2:24, 25
He will make a blood atonement (53:5)
Romans 3:25
He will be our substitute (53:6, 8)
2 Corinthians 5:21
He will voluntarily accept our guilt and punishment (53:7)
John 10:11
He will be buried in a rich man’s tomb (53:9)
John 19:38-42
He will justify many from their sin (53:10, 11)
Romans 5:15-19
He will die with transgressors (53:12)
Mark 15:27, 28; Luke 22:37
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Is 53.6). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




The Prophetic Points of History

 

Prophet's

Own Time

Captivity and RestorationIntertestament PeriodChrist's First ComingChrist's Second Coming New Heaven New Earth




Isaiah


Served as a prophet to Judah from 740-681 B.C.
 
  CLIMATE OF THE TIMES

 
  Society was in a great upheaval. Under King Ahaz and King Manasseh, the people reverted to idolatry, and there was even child sacrifice.
 
 
 MAIN MESSAGE

 
 Although judgment from other nations was inevitable, the people could still have a special relationship with God.  

 
 IMPORTANCE OF MESSAGE

 
 Sometimes we must suffer judgment and discipline before we are restored to God. 
 
 CONTEMPORARY PROPHETS 

 
 Hosea (753-7125 B.C), Micah (742-687 B.C.)



The Nations in Prophecy


(prophets listed in chronological order)


  Amos Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Miscellaneous
 Babylon  13:1-14::23
Destruction:
like Sodom
and Gomorrah;
no survivors
 50-51
Captivity,
destruction;
humiliation;
desolation; ruin
  Habakkuk 2:6-17
Destruction;
disgrace
 Philistia  1:6-8
Remnant 
will perish; destruction
 14:29-32
Helpless;
famine; defeated
from north
 47
Conquered from
north; destruction;
mourning remnant
 25:15-17
Destruction;
remnant cut off
 
 Moab 2:1-3
Fire, death
 15-16
Devastation;
ruin; mourning;
some remnant
 48
Desolation;
shame; exile;
laughingstock;
future restoration
 25:8-11
Captivity
 
 Damascus 1:3-5
Cut off, exile
 17:1-3
Ruin, but a remnant left
 49:23-27
Helpless; destruction
  
 Egypt  19
Civil war;
economic decline;
military defeat;
conquered by
Assyria
 46:1-26
To be
conquered by
Nebuchadnezzar
 29-32
Overcome
by Babylon

 
 Edom 1:11-12
Fire
 21:11-12
Devastation,
but possibility
of survival
 49:7-22
Flight; ruin;
object of horror;
like Sodom
and Gomorrah
desolation
 25:12-14
Laid waste

 Obadiah:
Destruction
no survivors
 Tyre 1:9-10
Burning
of citadels
 23
Destruction
conwuest;
restoration
after 70 years
  26-28
Overthrown;
mounning;
destrution
 
 Amon 1:13-15
Exile
  49:1-6
Desolate heap
possessed
by Israel; exile
future restoration
 25:1-7
destruction
 
 Nineveh     Nahum:
Control of Judah
ended; besieged;
destroyed;
plundered




The Blueprint



 
 A. WORDS OF JUDGMENT (1:1-39:8)
  1. The sins of Israel and Judah
  2. Judgment against heathen nations 
  3. God's purpose in judgment 
  4. Jerusalem's true and false hopes 
  5. Events during the reign of Hezekiah  
 
  The 39 chapters in the first half of Isaiah generally  carry the message of judgment for sin. Isaiah brings the message of judgment to Judah. Israel, and the surrounding pagan nations. The people of Judah had a from of godliness, but in their hearts they were corrupt. Isaiah's warnings were intended to purity the people by helping them understand God's true nature and message. However, they ignored the repeated warnings that Isaiah brought. We need to heed the prophetic voice and not repeat their error. 
 
 B. WORDS OF COMFORT (40:1-66:24)
  1. Israel's release from captivity 
  2. The future Redeemer 
  3. The future Kingdom  
 
  The 27 chapters in the second half of Isaiah generally bring a message of forgiveness, comfort, and hope. This message of hope looks forward to the coming of the Messiah. Isaiah speaks more about the Messiah than does any other Old Testament prophet. He describes the Messiah as both a suffering Servant and a sovereign Lord. The fact that the Messiah was to be both a suffering Servant and a sovereign Lord could not be understood clearly until New Testament times. Based on what Jesus Christ has done, God freely offers forgiveness to all who turn to him in faith. This is God's message of comfort to us because those who heed it find eternal peace and fellowship with him.