Exodus Graphics

Exodus Time

Joseph dies Slavery in Egypt Moses
Exodus from Egypt Ten
 Israel enters CanaanJudges begin to rule 
 1805 B.C
(1640 B.C)

Vital Statistics

 Purpose:  To record the events of Israel's deliverance from Egypt and development as a nation.
 Author:  Moses
 Original audience:  The people of Israel
 Date written: 1450-1410 B.C., approximately the same as Genesis 
 Where written:  In the wilderness during Israel's wanderings, somewhere in the Sinai peninsula. 
 Setting:  Egypt. God's people, once highly favored in the land, are now slaves. God is about to set then free. 
 Key verses:  "Then the Lord told him: 'I have certainly seen the oppression of my people in Egypt. I have heard their cries of distress because of their harsh slave drivers. Yes, I am aware of their suffering... Now go, for I am sending you to Pharaoh. You must lead my people Israel out of Egypt" (3:7, 10)
 Key people:  Moses, Miriam, Pharaoh,  Pharaoh's daughter, Jethro, Aaron, Joshua, Bezalel. 
 Key places:  Egypt, Goshen, Nile River, Midian, Red Sea, Sinai peninsula, mount Sinai. 
 Special features:  Exodus relates more miracles than any other Old Testament book and is noted for conteining the Ten Commandments. 

Three key contrasts

Other Covenants
Law Covenant
1. God only Maker
1. Each generation/individuals enter it with Him
2. Future in view
2. Present experience in view
3. Unconditional promise
3. Conditional, with promises and warnings
Law’s Functions
1. To reveal God’s character
2. To reveal individuals to themselves in contrast to the pure standards of God
3. To guide the believer’s faith-response to God by specifying His expectations
4. To provide a basis on which God can discipline His people
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (101). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.

The Tabernacle

Brazen Altar
Entrance demands sacrifice
Christ died to win us access
Brazen Laver
Those within need cleansing
Bread of the Presence
All needed to strengthen and supply provided daily
Golden Lampstand
Light by which to see provided
Golden Altar of Incense
Praise and prayer
Ark of the Covenant
Presence of God
Way into God’s presence not open
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (106). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.

Egyptian Pharaohs

Ahmosis I
1570–46 b.c.
Amenhotep IV
1379–62 b.c.
Amenhotep I
1546–26 b.c.
1364–61 b.c.
Thutmose I
1526–12 b.c.
1361–52 b.c.
Thutmose II
1512–04 b.c.
1352–48 b.c.
Thutmose III
1504–1450 b.c.
1348–20 b.c.
1504–1483 b.c.
Rameses I
1320–18 b.c.
Amenhotep II
1450–25 b.c.
Seti I
1318–04 b.c.
Thutmose IV
1425–17 b.c.
Rameses II
1304–1236 b.c.
Amenhotep III
1417–1379 b.c.
1236–1223 b.c.
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Ex 1.8). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Gods of Egypt

Form or Sacred Animal
Earth-god • Helper of the dead
Two lion heads
Wind-god • God of Thebes • Helper of the pious
Human (ram and goose sacred)
Glorifier of the dead
Jackal-headed, black-skinned
Ensures fertility
Primordial creature-god
Protection at birh • Dispenser of virility
Group of demons
Goddess of Delta/Lower Egypt
Uraeus serpent
Earth-god • Consort of Nut • Begetter of Osiris
Primordial god • Rising sun
Giver of the NIle • Creator of mankind
Human with ram’s head
Justice • Daughter of Ra
Goddess protector of newborns and of destiny
God of virility and reproduction
“Eye of the sun,”consort of Arnon
Vulture or human
Goddess of Upper Egypt
Sky-goddess • Consort of Geb Mother of Osiris and Seth • Mother of heavenly bodies
Dead pharoahs • Ruler of dead, life, vegetation
Creator-god • Lord of artisans
God of sun, earth and sky • Fahter of Maat • National god
Human with falcon head
Goddess of war and sickness
Human with lion head
Guardian of life • Protector of dead
Goddess of writing and books
God of chaos, desert and srom, crops • Brother of Osiris
God of air, bearer of heaven
God of Nile floodwaters
Goddess of fertility and harvest; fate
God of wisdom, moon, chronology •Messenger of gods
Ibis of baboon
Goddess of fertility and women in labor
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Ex 6.28). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Ten Plagues on Egypt

The Plague
The Effect
1. Blood (7:20)
Pharaoh hardened (7:22)
2. Frogs (8:6)
Pharaoh begs relief, promises freedom (8:8), but is hardened (8:15)
3. Lice (8:17)
Pharaoh hardened (8:19)
4. Flies (8:24)
Pharaoh bargains (8:28), but is hardened (8:32)
5. Livestock diseased (9:6)
Pharaoh hardened (9:12)
6. Boils (9:10)
Pharaoh hardened (9:12)
7. Hail (9:23)
Pharaoh begs relief (9:27), promises freedom (9:28), but is hardened (9:35)
8. Locusts (10:13)
Pharaoh bargains (10:11), begs relief (10:17), but is hardened (10:20)
9. Darkness (10:22)
Pharaoh bargains (10:24), but is hardened (10:27)
10. Death of firstborn (12:29)
Pharaoh and Egyptians beg Israel to leave Egypt (12:31–33)
God multiplied His signs and wonders in the land of Egypt that the Egyptians might know that he is the Lord.
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Ex 7.8). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Feasts of the Lord

Scripture References
Prophetic Significance
1. Passover ( Pesah, Heb.)
Ex. 12:1–28, 43–49; Lev. 23:5; Num. 28:16; Deut. 16:1–8
The evening of the fourteenth day of Nisan (Abib), the first month of the year (March/April).
(1) To commemorate Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage.
(2) To remind the children of Israel that God “passed over their houses, i.e., spared the firstborn of the Israelites (Ex. 12:27)
(1) Christ is our Passover (cf. John 1:29; 19:36; 1 Cor. 5:7; 1 Pet. 1:18).
(2) The Passover is the foundation for the Lord’s Supper (cf. Matt. 26:17–30; Mark 14:12–25; Luke 22:1–20).
(3) The Passover foreshadows the marriage supper of the Lamb (cf. Matt. 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:16–18).
2. Feast of Unleavened Bread (matsot, Heb.).
Ex. 12:15-20; 13:3–10; Lev. 23:6–8; Num. 28:17–25; Deut. 16:3–8
It began on the fifteenth day of Nisan (Abib) and continued for one week (March/April).
To commemorate the hardships of Israel’s hurried flight from Egypt (Ex 12:39). The absence of leaven symbolizes complete consecration and devotion to God.
(1) Unleavened bread is a type of Christ (cf. John 6:30–59; 1 Cor. 11:24).
(2) Unleavened bread is a type of the true church (cf. 1 Cor. 5:7, 8).
3. Day of Firstfruits (Bikkurim, Heb.).
Lev. 23:9–14
On the day after the Sabbath of Passover (March/April).
To dedicate and consecrate the firstfruits of the barley harvest.
(1) Firstfruits is a type of the bodily resurrection of Christ (cf. 1 Cor. 15:20–23).
(2) Firstfruits is a guarantee of the bodily resurrection of all believers (cf. 1 Cor. 15:20–23; 1Thess. 4:13–18).
(3) Firstfruits is a type of the consecration of the church.
4. Feast of Pentecost (or Weeks; shabuot, Heb.).
Lev. 23:15–22; Num. 28:26; Deut. 16:9–12
The day after the seventh Sabbath After the Day of Firstfruits (May/June).
To dedicate and consecrate firstfruits of the wheat harvest.
The outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon the church occurred on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2). The two loaves, representative of the Jew and Gentile, contained leaven because sin is found within the church.
5. Day of Trumpets (rosh hashanah, Heb.).
Lev. 23:23–25; Num. 10:10; 29:1–6
The first day of the seventh month (Tishri), the sabbatical month (September/October).
To usher in and consecrate the seventh month as the sabbatical month.
In the N.T. the blowing of the trumpet is associated with the return of our Lord (cf. Matt. 24:31; 1 Cor. 15:52; 1 Thess. 4:16).
6. Day of Atonement (yom kippur, Heb.).
Lev. 16; 23:26–32; Num. 29:7–11
The tenth day of the seventh month (Tishri-Septmeber/October).
To make annual atonement for the sins of the priests and the people, and for the tabernacle (temple).
The Day of Atonement finds its ultimate fulfillment in the crucifixion of Christ (cf. Heb 9). It represents the redeeming work of Christ more adequately than any other O.T. type.
6. Feast of Tabernacles (Booths or Ingathering; sukkot, Heb.).
Lev. 23:33–43; Num. 29:12–38; Deut. 16:13–17
The fifteenth through twenty-first of the seventh month (Tishri), with an eighth day added as a climax to all the feasts (September/October).
(1) To commemorate God’s deliverance and protection during the wilderness wanderings (23:43).
(2) To rejoice in the completion of all the harvest (23:29).
The Feast of Tabernacles foreshadows the peace and prosperity of the millennial reign of Christ (Zech. 14:16).
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Ex 22.22). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Chronology of Israel in the Pentateuch

Fifteenth day, first month, first year
Exodus 12
Fifteenth day, second month, first year
Arrival in Wilderness of Sin
Exodus 16:1
Third month, first year
Arrival in Wilderness of Sinai
Exodus 19:1
First day, first month, second year
Erection of Tabernacle
Exodus 40:1, 17
Dedication of Altar
Numbers 7:1
Consecration of Levites
Numbers 8:1–26
Fourteenth day, first month, second year
Numbers 9:5
First day, second month, second year
Numbers 1:1, 18
Fourteenth day, sexond month, second year
Supplemental Passover
Numbers 9:11
Twentieth day, second month, second year
Departure from Sinai
Numbers 10:11
First month, fortieth year
In Wilderness of Zin
Numbers 20:1, 22–29; 33:38
First day, fifth month, fortieth year
Death of Aaron
Numbers 20:22–29; 33:38
First day, eleventh month, fortieth year
Moses’ Address
Deuteronomy 1:3
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Ex 40.17). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Biblical Models of Deliverance

The Exodus model
Geographical deliverance
Seen in deliverance of the Jews from Egyptian bondage. It’s rallying cry was, “Let My people go!” (Ex. 5:1; 7:16; 8:1; 9:1).
The Jubilee model
Land redistribution
Rooted in Israel’s civil code (Lev. 25) and perhaps alluded to by Jesus (Luke 4:18–19). It allowed for periodic redress of inequalities to avoid large gaps between haves and have-nots, by restoring property to its original owner.
The Naboth model
Land reclamation
Based on the Old Testament scandal in which land was unjustly taken from a powerless Naboth by powerful King Ahab (1 Kin. 21). The prophet Elijah condemned Ahab for murdering Naboth to get his land.
The Esther model
Social and Political deliverance
Seen through Queen Esther working within the structures of a pagan society to save an oppressed minority from genocide.
The Jonah model
Deliverance through preaching and repentance
Based on Jonah’s appeal to the Ninevites for repentance. His effective preaching resulted in an evil nation turning to God, at least temporarily, with perhaps some positive impact on its infamous foreign policy.
The Cyrus model
Deliverance by pagan political leaders
The result of a sovereign God appointing Cyrus of Persia to accomplish His purposes (Is. 45:13).
The Kingdom model
Deliverance by, of, and from those in authority
A New Testament view of governing authorities that stretches from Paul’s optimism about the Roman Empire (Rom. 13:1–6) to John’s pessimism about the same empire, 40 years later (Rev. 13). God’s people await His ultimate triumph over evil and Christ’s reign “on earth as it is in heaven” (Matt. 6:10).
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.


1. The water of the Nile River is turned to blood (Ex. 7:14–25).
Pharaoh is hardened (7:22).
2. Frogs overrun the countryside (8:1–15).
Pharaoh begs relief and promises freedom (8:8), but is hardened (8:15).
3. People and animals are infested with lice (or insects, 8:16–19).
Pharaoh is hardened (8:19).
4. Swarms of flies cover the land (8:20–32).
Pharaoh bargains (8:28), but is hardened (8:32).
5. Disease kills the livestock (9:1–7).
Pharaoh is hardened (9:7).
6. Boils and sores infect the Egyptians and their animals (9:8–12).
Pharaoh is hardened (9:12).
7. Hail destroys crops and vegetation (9:13–35).
Pharaoh begs relief (9:27) and promises freedom (9:28), but is hardened (9:35).
8. Swarms of locusts cover the land (10:1–20).
Pharaoh bargains (10:11) and begs relief (10:17), but is hardened (10:20).
9. Thick darkness covers Egypt for three days (10:21–29).
Pharaoh bargains (10:24), but is hardened (10:27).
10. The Egyptian firstborn, both people and animals, are destroyed by God’s death angel (11:1–12:30).
Pharaoh and the Egyptians beg Israel to leave (12:31–33).
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Ex 11.4). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Wilderness Areas in Scripture

1. Beersheba (Gen. 21:14)
The area to which Hagar fled after being cast out by Sarah.
2. Beth Aven (Josh. 18:12)
The hill country of Benjamin east of Bethel.
3. Damascus (1 Kin. 19:15)
The desert area near the city of Damascus, well known in the ancient world for the trade routes that traversed it.
4. Edom (2 Kin. 3:8)
The land occupied by Esau’s descendants between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.
5. En Gedi (1 Sam. 24:1)
A desert area west of the Dead Sea, named for a fresh-water spring; David fled there to escape Saul.
6. Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:24)
The region surrounding the city of Gibeon, six miles northwest of Jerusalem; site of a great pool (Jer. 41:12) dug into solid rock that was both the city’s water supply and the center of a wine-making industry.
7. Jeruel (2 Chr. 20:16)
The area between En Gedi and Tekoa; site of the victory of King Jehoshaphat over the Moabites and Ammonites.
8. Judah (Judg. 1:16)
The area south of Jerusalem on the western side of the Dead Sea.
9. Kadesh (Ps. 29:8)
The site of Israel’s refusal to go up and possess the Promised Land, in opposition to God’s express command.
10. Kedemoth (Deut. 2:26)
The desert area near the Levitical city of the same name (Josh. 21:37).
11. Maon (1 Sam. 23:24)
An area west of the Dead Sea in which David hid from Saul, also the home of Nabal (1 Sam. 25:2–3).
12. Moab (Deut. 2:8)
The remote area west of the Dead Sea and home to the Moabites.
13. Paran (Gen. 21:21)
The section of the Sinai Peninsula where Ishmael settled.
14. Red Sea (Ex. 13:18)
The Bitter Lakes region just north of Suez; probable site of Israel’s crossing of the Red Sea.
15. Shur (Ex. 15:22)
The northwest portion of the Sinai Peninsula where Israel began their wilderness journey after crossing the Red Sea.
16. Sin (Ex. 16:1)
A district in the southwest part of the Sinai Peninsula where the Lord miraculously provided quail.
17. Sinai (Ex. 19:1)
The portion of the Sinai Peninsula surrounding Mount Sinai, where the Law was given to Moses.
18. Tekoa (2 Chr. 20:20)
The area just to the southeast of the city of Tekoa, west of the Dead Sea; David’s general Joab sent to Tekoa for a “wise woman” to reconcile the king with his son Absalom.
19. Zin (Num. 13:21)
The portion of land at the southern end of Canaan; base of operations for Israel when it sent spies into Canaan.
20. Ziph (1 Sam. 23:14)
The area around the city of Ziph in the hill country of Judah; a place where David fled from Saul.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Ex 16.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

The Blueprint

  1. ISRAEL IN EGYPT (1:1-12:30)

  1. Slavery in Egypt (1:1-12:30)

  2. God chooses Moses

  3. God sends Moses to Pharaoh

  4. Plagues strike Egypt

  5. The Passover

 When the Israelites were enslaved in Egypt, God heard their cries and rescued them. We can be confident that God still hears the cries of this people. Just as he delivered the Israelites from their captors, he delivers us from sin, death, and evil.

  1. ISRAEL IN THE WILDERNESS (12:31-18:27)

  1. The Exodus

  2. Crossing the sea

  3. Complaining in the wilderness

 After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites became quarrelsome and discontent. Like the Israelites, we find it easy to complain and be dissatisfied. Christians still have struggles, but we should never allow difficulties and unpleasant circumstances to turn us away from trusting God.

  1. ISRAEL AT SINAI (19:1-40:38)

  1. Giving the Law

  2. Tabernacle instructions

  3. Breaking the law

  4. Tabernacle construction

 God revealed his law to the Israelites at Sinai. Through the law, they learned more about what God is like and how he expected his people to live. The law is still instructional for us, for it exposes our sin and shows us God’s standard for living.

Exodus Overview

The Ten Commandments

 CommandmentOT Statement OT Death Penalty  NT Restatement
 1st Polytheism Ex 20:3 Ex 22:20; Dt 6:13-15 Ac  14:15
 2nd Idols Ex 20:4 Dt 27:15 1Jn 5:21
 3rd Swearing Ex 20:7 Lev  24:15, 16 Jas 5:12
 4th Sabbath  Ex 20:8 Nu 15:32-36 Col 2:16 nullifies 
 5th Obedience to Parents Ex 20:12 Ex 21:15-17 Eph 6:1
 6h Murder Ex 20:13 Ex 21:12 1Jn 3:15
 7th Adultery  Ex 20:14 Lev 20:10 1Co 6:9, 10
 8th Theft  Ex 20:15 Ex 21:16 Eph 4:28
 9th False Witness Ex 20:16 Dt 18:16-21 Col 3:9, 10
 10th Coveting Ex 20:17 --------------- Eph 5:3