Graphics of Daniel




Daniel's Time


 Daniel taken captive to BabylonEzekiel becomes a prophet to exiles Judah falls; Jerusalem is destroyed; Jeremiah's ministry ends Daniel's first vision Babylon overthrown; Daniel thrown to lions First exiles return to Judah Daniel's ministry ends 
605 B.C.  593586  553 539538  536



Vital statistics


Purpose:

To give a historical account of the faithful Jews who lived in captivity and to show how God is in control of heaven and earth, directing the forces of nature, the destiny of nations, and the care of his people

 Author:

Daniel

Original audience:

The other captives in Babylon

Date written:

Approximately 536 B.C. recording events that occurred from about 605-536 B.C.

Setting:

Daniel had been taken captive and deported to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 605 B.C. There he served in the government for about 70 years during the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, Darius, and Cyrus.

Key verse:

"He (God) reveals deep and mysterious things and knows what lies hidden in darkness, though he is surrounded by light" (2:22)

Key people:

Daniel, Nebuchadnezzar, Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego, Belshazzar, Darius.

 Key places:

Nebuchadnezzar's palace, the blazing furnace, Belshazzar's feast, the den of lions

Special features:

Daniel's apocalyptic visions (chapters 7-12) give a glimpse of God's plan for the ages, including a direct prediction of the Messiah.




The Rulers and Prophets of Daniel's Time


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Babylonian

and Medo-

Persian Kings

Neo-Babylonian Empire

Medo-Persian Empire

Nabopolasar   626-605

 605 Nebuchadnezzar 562

Nabonidus 556-539

CyrusCam-byses

 Darius I Hystaspes  521-486

Ahasuerus 486
  

         562-560 Evil-Merodach

553-539 Belshazzar539-525 Darius the MedeSmerdis

483 Vashti deposed

 
  

560-556 Neriglissar

   478 Esther queen
  

556 Labashi Marduk

          

Judah's Last Kings

(Southern Kingdom) 

 609-597 JeholakimJudah taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar       
  Jehoiachin 3 months538 Decree of Cyrus  
  597-586 Zedekiah  536 Temple started  
  

         70-Year Jewish Captivity  Three Stages of Captivity

Zerubbabel536

  605 Daniel and friends   534 Temple topped   
   597 Ezekiel and ten thousand captives 520 Temple resumed  
     586 Destruction of Jerusalem  516 Temple finished 

Daniel and His Contemporary Prophets   (Southern Kingdom)

  

 605              DANIEL             536

       
         

  627     Jeremiah     574

          
   

593 Ezekiel 559

         
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World Kingdoms from Daniel's Time on 


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BABYLON

626 - 539

 MEDO-PERSIA

539 - 331

 

GREECE

331 - 63

ROME

 63 - 476

 605 Daniel taken captive 536 Temple work begins 323 Alexander the Great dies at age 3320 Herod the Great begins rebuilding second Temple
 516 Temple rebuilt 165 Antiochus Epiphanes sets up abomination of desolation
 597 Ezekiel taken to Babylon 478 Esther becomes Queen 4 Birth of Jesus & death of Herod
 445 Decree of Artaxerxes to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem 165 Maccabean Revolt begins

V

 586 Jerusalem destroyed           70/72-74? Temple & Jerusalem destroyed
                    
                         72-74 Masada captured
                      <B.C. 

A.D. >

   
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Models of Faith in Hostile Societies


     Joseph
(
Gen. 37–47)
     Sold as a slave and taken to Egypt, but maintained godly character despite numerous setbacks.
     A model of integrity both in adversity and prosperity.
     Daniel
     Shadrach
     Meshach
     Abed-Nego
(
Dan. 1–6)
     Taken to Babylon as captives of war and trained for service in a pagan government.
     Models of integrity and commitment to the Lord while carrying out duties for unbelievers.
     Nehemiah
(
Neh. 1–6)
     A strategically placed official in the Persian court who was allowed to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the wall.
     A model of leveraging one’s position to accomplish God’s purposes while overcoming hostile opposition.
     Esther
     Mordecai
(
Esth. 1–10)
     Two members of an ethnic minority who found themselves in a position to influence a godless king.
     Models of taking courage and acting wisely in order to withstand evil.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Dn 2.48). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.





Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome


Babylon
(605–538 b.c.)
Medo-Persia
(538–331 b.c.)
Greece
(331–146 b.c.)
Rome
(146 b.c.-a.d. 476)
Daniel 2:31–45
Dream image (603 B.C.)
Head of gold
(2:32, 37–38)
Breast, arms of silver
(2:32, 39)
Belly, thighs of brass
(2:32, 39)
Legs of iron
Feet of iron and clay
(2:33, 40–41)
Daniel 7
First Vision:Four Beasts (553 B.C.)
Lion
(7:4)
Bear
(7:5)
Leopard
(7:6)
Strong Beast
(7:7, 11, 19,23)
Daniel 8
Second vision:Raw and goat (551 B.C.)
Ram
(8:3–4, 20)
Goat with one horn
(8:5–8, 21)
Four horns
(8:8, 22)
Little Horn
(8:9–14)
Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher's commentary. Includes index. (445). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.




The Little Horns of Chapters 7 and 8 Compared


It is important to note that the little horns of chapters 7 and 8 are two distinct persons. Several factors make this distinction clear:
Little Horn of Chapter 7
Little Horn of Chapter 8
Would come from Rome (fourth kingdom).
Would come from Greece (third kingdom).
Would be an eleventh horn, rooting up three of ten horns.
Would be a fifth horn, coming our of one of four horns.
Would prsecute God’s people for 42 months or 3 1/2 years.
Wouls persecute God’s people for 2,300 days or over 6 years.
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Dn 6.22). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




The Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks (490 years)


Dextee of Artaxerxes to Nehemiah—March 14, 445 B.C.
Presentation of Messiah as Prince—April 6, A.D. 32
Covenant of Antichrist with Israel
Return of Messiah to Establish Kingdom of God
v. 25
Sixty-nine Weeks (483 Years)
v. 26
Gap of Time
v. 27
Seventieth Week
(Seven Weeks) 49 years to Compete Rebuilding of Jerusalem
(Sixty-two Weeks = 434 Years)
Messiah cut off— A.D. 33 Jerusalem and Sanctuary Destroyed A.D. 7
3 1/2 Years
Image of Antichrist in Temple
3 1/2 Years Desoation by Antichrist
Six Purposes v. 24
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Dn 9.4). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




The Prophetic Books


Prophets Before the Exile
Exile Prophets
Prophets After the Exile
To Israel:
To Judah:
To Jews in Babylon:
To the remnant after returning:
Amos (76)
Hosea (755)
Joel (835)
Daniel (605)
Isaiah (740)
Ezekiel (592)
Haggai (520)
Micah (735)
Zechariah (520)
To Nineveh:
Zephaniah (630)
Malachi (432)
Jonah (760)
Jeremiah (627)
Nahum (660)
Habakkuk (607)
Lamentation (586)
To Edom:
Obadiah (840)
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Dn 12.8). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.




History of Israel's Relationship to the Kings of Daniel 11


Alexander the Great

336-323 B.C.

The Large Horn of the Shaggy Goat of Greece  (8:21)

Twenty-two years after Alexander's death, Greece was divided among four of his generals (8:22)

 

Lysimachus

took Thrace abd Bithynia

 

Cassander

took Macedonia

 

Ptolemy I Soter

took Egypt

 

Seleucus I Nicator

took Syria

 

Kings of the South-Egypt Kimgs of the Noth-Syria
1. Ptolemy I Soter,          323-285 a.C. (Dn11:5) 1. Seleucus I Nicator,      312-281 a.C. (Dn 11:5
  2. Antiochus I Soter          (not referred to inDaniel)
2. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 285-245 a.C. (Dn 11:6)

Marriage

3. Antiochus II Theos,       262-246 a.C. (Dn 11:6)
3. Ptolemy III Euergetes  245-221 a.C. (Dn 11:7-9)2 Wars4. Seleucus II Callinicus,      246-226  (Dn 11:7-9)
  5. Seleucus III Ceraunus,  226-223 a.C. (Dn 11:10)
4. Ptolemy IV Philopator, 221-203 a.C. (Dn 11:11,12)2 Wars6. Antiochus III the Great, 223-187 a.C (Dn11:10, 11, 13, 15-19)
5. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, 203-181a.C.(Dn11:14, 15, 17)

War/Marriage (6) 

7. Seleucus IV Philopator, 187-175 a.C. (Dn 11:20)
6. Ptolemy VI Philometor 181-145 a.C. (Dn 11:25) 8. Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 175-163 a.C. (Dn 11:21-35)
* These kings ruled Israel (younger son of Antiohus III the great)




Daniel


Served as a prophets to the exiles in Babylon from 605-56 B.C.
 
 CLIMATE OF THE TIME

 
 The people of Judah were captives in a strange land, feeling hopeless. 
 
 MAIN MESSAGE

 
 God is sovereign over all human history, past, present, and future. 
 
 IMPORTANCE OF MESSAGE 

 
 We should spend less time wondering when future events will happen and more time learning how we should live now. 

 
 CONTEMPORARY PROPHETS 

 
 Jeremiah (627-586 B.C.), Habakkuk (612-589 B.C), Ezekiel (593-571 B.C.) 








The Blueprint


 
 A. DANIEL'S LIFE (1:1-6:28)

   Daniel and his three friends chose not to eat the king's food. They did not bow down to the king's image, even under penalty of death. Daniel continued to pray even though he knew he might be noticed and sentenced to death. These men are inspiring examples for us of how to live godly lives in a sinful world. When er face trials, we can expect God also be with us through them. May God grant us similar courage to remain faithful under pressure.  


 B. DANIEL'S VISIONS (7:1-12:13)

   These visions gave the captives added confidence that God is in control of history. They were to wait patiently in faith and not worship the gods of Babylon or accept that society's way of life. God still rules over human activities. Evil will be overcome, so we should wait patiently and not give in to the temptations and pressures of the sinful way of life around us.