Saul becomes kingSaul dies; David becomes king over Judah  David becomes king over all IsraelDavid captures Jerusalem David captures Rabbah David's census  Solomon becomes king The kingdom divides 
 1050 B.C.
(1045 B.C.)
 1010 1003 1000 997 (?) 980 (?) 970 930

   2 Chronicles's Time

 Solomon becomes kingThe
The kingdom divides Asa becomes king of Judah Jehoshaphat becomes king of Judah  Ahab killed in battleAthaliah seizes the throne  Uzziah becomes king of JudahIsrael (northern kingdom) falls   Hezekiah becomes king of Judah Sennacherib taunts Hezekiah
 970 B.C.966-959 930  910 872 853841  792722 715  701

Josiah becomes king  Book of the Law foundJudah (southern kingdom) falls  Cyrus's decree
640  622 586 538

Vital statistics

 Purpose: To unify God's people, to trace the Davidic line, and to teach that genuine worship ought to be the center of individual and national life
 Author: Ezra, according to Jewish tradition
 Original audience: The exiles who returned from captivity
 Date written: Aproximately
 Setting: First Chronicles parallels 2 Samuel and serves as a commentary on it. Written after the Exile from a priestly point of view, 1 Chronicles emphasizes the religious history of Judah and Israel. 
 Key verses: "And David realized that the Lord had confirmed him as king over Israel and had greatly blessed his kindom for the sake of his people Israel" (14:2)
 Key people: David, Solomon
 Key places: Hebron, Jerusalem, the Temple

Not Just a Repeat of Kings

Samuel and Kings. . .
Chronicles. . .
List formally only David’s immediate family (2 Sam. 3:2–5; 5:13–16).
Gives an extensive genealogy of the Israelites from Adam to the end of the Exile (1 Chr. 1–9).
Give an account of Saul’s life and death (1 Sam. 9–31).
Begins its history with the death of Saul (1 Chr. 10).
Give an account of David’s life prior to being crowned king (1 Sam. 16–31).
Begins its account of David with his being crowned king of Judah after the death of Saul (1 Chr. 11).
Give an account of David’s sin with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11).
Makes no mention of David’s sin with Bathsheba (1 Chr. 20).
Give an account of the troubles in David’s family, including the rape of Tamar, and the assassination of Amnon (2 Sam. 13), and the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam. 15–18).
Makes no mention of David’s family troubles.
Make only a passing reference to David’s preparations for the temple (1 Kin. 5:3).
Describes David’s extensive preparations for the temple, which Solomon built (1 Chr. 22; 28:1–29:9).
Describe political intrigue during the succession of David to Solomon (1 Kin. 1–2).
Makes no mention of the challenges to Solomon’s right to the throne.
Mention Solomon’s folly of marrying numerous foreign women, who turned his heart away from the Lord (1 Kin. 11:1–8).
Makes no mention of Solomon’s political marriages or idolatry.
Summarize the reigns of all the kings of Israel and Judah.
Summarizes the reigns of the kings of Judah only.
End with Judah in exile and political chaos at Jerusalem (2 Kin. 25:22–30).
Ends with Cyrus’s decree allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem, bringing an end to the Exile (2 Chr. 36:22–23).
Give an account of the prophets Elijah and Elisha.
Omits the careers of Elijah and Elisha.
Often allude to rural matters and to tribal and ethnic concerns.
Tends to deal primarily with urban concerns and issues of Hebrew culture.
Tend to present a political history with a focus on the monarchy.
Tends to present a religious history with a focus on the temple.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Gn 1.1). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Focus Through Fasting

Person(s) Fasting
Circumstances and Result
Fasted 40 days and nights as he met with God on Mount Sinai (Ex. 34:27–28). He received a second set of tablets containing the Law after the incident with the golden calf.
The Israelites
Fasted to show their repentance and renew the covenant after retrieving the ark of the covenant from the Philistines (1 Sam. 7:5–6). Victory over the Philistines soon followed (7:10–11).
Fasted to show his repentance after learning that he would lose the child conceived by adultery with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 12:15–16). The child died anyway according to the judgment of the Lord.
Fasted to show his repentance after Elijah warned him of judgment because of the murder of Naboth (1 Kin. 21:27). The Lord decided to delay punishment until his son assumed the throne (21:29).
Fasted before journeying from Babylon to Jerusalem in order to ask God’s blessing, guidance, and safety (Ezra 8:21–23). The trip was without incident (8:31–32).
Fasted and repented on behalf of the Israelites after learning of dire conditions at Jerusalem (see “Nehemiah’s Prayer: A Model to Follow” at Neh. 1:4–11). God gave him favor with the king and a chance to return and rebuild Jerusalem’s walls.
Fasted and repented on behalf of the Jews in order to entreat God to restore them from exile in Babylon (Dan. 9:3–4). God allowed His people to return to their land.
The city of Nineveh
Fasted to show faith in God and repentance after hearing Jonah’s message of impending judgment (Jon. 3:4–9). The Lord forgave the Ninevites’ sin and spared them from calamity.
Reminded Israel of four commemorative fasts to be held each year after their return from exile. The events were intended to call them to love truth and peace (Zech. 8:19).
Fasted for 40 days in the wilderness after being baptized by John at the start of His ministry (Matt. 4:2). Satan came to tempt Him into sin, but He withstood the test.
Was fasting and praying when God directed him to send for Peter (Acts 10:30–32). Peter proclaimed the gospel to Cornelius and his family, and they received it with gladness (10:34–48).
Paul and Barnabas
Were fasting and praying when God called them for a journey to take the gospel to Asia Minor (Acts 13:1–5). Several new churches were planted as many came to faith.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (1 Cr 10.12). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

 David’s Troubles

David’s census was a proud, sinful act for which he repented, yet his people paid the price (1 Chr. 21:7–8). The census was actually one of a handful if failures that Scripture records concerning David.
David’s Sin
Adultery with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11:1–5)
     Bathsheba bears a son who dies shortly after birth (2 Sam. 11:27; 12:15–19).
The murder of Uriah (2 Sam. 11:6–25)
     David’s son Amnon commits incest with David’s daughter Tamar (2 Sam. 13:1–18).
     Amnon is murdered by another son, Absalom (13:22–29).
     Absalom is estranged from David (13:30–14:24).
     Absalom usurps the throne and violates David’s concubines (15:1–12; 16:20–22).
     Absalom is killed (18:1–17).
The census (1 Chr. 21:1–6)
     A plague kills 70, 000 Israelites (1 Chr. 21:7–14).
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (1 Cr 21.7). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

David's Family Tree

    David's WivesDavid's Children
     Michal (Saul's daughter) No children
 Ahinoam Amnon
 Abigail Daniel (Chileab)
 Maacah Absalom, Tamar (daughter)
Boaz and Ruth Ruth 2:1; 4:21 Haggith Adonijah
 Obed         Ruth 4:17, 21 Abital Shephatiah
 Jesse         Ruth 4:17,21     1 Samuel 16:1; 17:12 Eglah Ithream
   David            Ruth 4:17, 22         2 Samuel 5:13-16 1Chronicless 3:1-9; 14:3-7 Bethsheba (Bath-shua) Shimea (Shammua), Shobab, Nathan, Solomon
 Unknown Xibhar, Elishama (Elishua), Eliphelet (Elpelet), Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada (Beeliada), Eliphelet


Historical Parallel of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles



1 Samuel



2 Samuel


1-4 |  5-10  11-20 | 21-24

1 Kings


1 - 11

1 Kings


12 - 22

2 Kings


1-17              |             18-25

1 Chronicles 10

1 Chronicles 11-19

1 Chronicles 20-29

2 Chronicles


2 Chronicles



2 Chronicles




The Blueprint

  1. Ancestry of the nation
  2. The tribes of Israel 
  3. Returnees from exile in Babylon
   The long list of names that follows presents a history of God's work in the world from Adam through Zerubbabel. Some of these names reminds us of stories of great faith, and others, of tragic failure.
  About most of the people named, however, we know nothing. But those who died unknow to us are known by God. God will also remember us when we die.   
   B. THE REIGN OF DAVID (10:1-29:30)
  1. David becomes king over all of Israel 
  2. David brings the Ark to Jerusalem
  3. David's military exploits 
  4. David arranges for the building of the Temple
   David loved the Lord and wanted to build a Temple to replace the Tabernacle, but God denied his request. David's greatest contribution to the Temple would not be the construction but the preparation. We may be unable to see the results of our labors for God in our lifetime, but David's example helps us understand that we serve God so he will see his results, not so we will see ours. 

First and Second Chronicles Overview