2 Samuel
שמואל ב
24 Chapters, 695 verses, 20612 words.

 



Vital Statistics

 Purpose: 1) to record the history of David's reign
 2) to demonstrate effective leadership under God
 3) to reveal that one person can make a difference
 4) to show the personal qualities that please God
 5) to depict David as an ideal leader of an imperfect kingdom, and to foreshadow Christ, who will be the ideal leader of a new and perfect kingdom (chapter 7)
 Author: Unknown. Some have suggested that Nathan's son Zabud may have been the author (1 Kings 4:5)
 Original audience:  The people of Israel
 Date written:  930 B.C.; written soon after David's reign, 1010-970 B.C. 
 Setting:  The land of Israel under David's rule 
 Key verse:  "Then David knew that the Lord had established him as king over Israel and had exalted his kingdom for the sake of his people Israel" (5:12)
 Key people: David, Joah, Bathsheba, Nathan, Absalom
 Special feature:  This book was named after the prophet who anointed David and guidad him in living for God


Title 

    1 and 2 Samuel were originally one book (see Introduction to 1 Samuel:Title). Title 



Literary Features, Authorship and Date 

    See Introduction to 1 Samuel: Literary Features, Authorship and Date. 



Contents and Theme: Kingship and Covenant

    2 Samuel depicts David as a true (though imperfect) representative of the ideal they   cratic king. David was initially acclaimed king at Hebron by the tribe of Judah (chs.1-4) and subsequently was accepted by the remaining tribes after the murder of lsh-Bosheth one of Saul's surviving sons (5:1-5). David's leadership was decisive and effective. He capture Jerusalem from the Jebusites and made it his royal city and residence (5:6-1 3). Shortly after. ward he brought the ark of the Lord from the house of Abinadab to Jerusalem, publicly ac. acknowledging the Lord's kingship and rule over himself and the nation (ch. 6; Ps 132:3-5). 

    Under David's rule the Lord caused the nation to prosper, to defeat its enemies and, in fulfillment of his promise (see Ge 15:18), to extend its borders from Egypt to the Euphrates (ch. 8). David wanted to build a temple for the Lord—as his royal house, as a place for his throne (the ark) and as a place for Israel to worship him. But the prophet Nathan told David that he was not to build the Lord a house (temple); rather, the Lord would build David a house (dy-nasty). Ch. 7 announces the Lord's promise that this Davidic dynasty would endure forever.This climactic chapter also describes the establishment of the Davidic covenant (see notes on 7:1-29,11,16; Ps 89:30-37). Later the prophets make clear that a descendant of David who sits on David's throne will perfectly fulfill the role of the theocratic king. He will complete the redemption of God's people (see Isa 9:6-7; 11:1-16; Jer 23:5-6; 30:8-9; 33:14-16; Eze 34:23-24; 37:24-25), thus enabling them to achieve the promised victory with him (Ro 16:20). 

    After the description of David's rule in its glory and success, chs. 10-20 depict the darker side of his reign and describe David's weaknesses and failures. Even though David remained .2 king after God's own heart because he was willing to acknowledge his sin and repent (12:13) he nevertheless fell far short of the theocratic ideal and suffered the disciplinary results of hi disobedience (12:10-12). His sin with Bathsheba (chs. 11-12) and his leniency both with the wickedness of his sons (13:12-39; 21; 14:1,33; 19:4-6) and with the insubordination of Jo' (3:28-39; 20:10,23) led to intrigue, violence and bloodshed within his own family and the na-tion. It eventually drove him from Jerusalem at the time of Absalom's rebellion. Nonetheless the Lord was gracious to David, and his reign became a standard by which the reigns of later kings were measured (see 2Ki 18:3; 22:2). 

    The book ends with David's own words of praise to God, who had delivered him from all his enemies (22:31-51), and with words of expectation for the fulfillment of God's promise that' king will come from the house of David and rule "over men in righteousness" (23:3-5).These songs echo many of the themes of Hannah's song (1Sa 2:1-10), and together they frame (and interpret) the basic narrative. 


 

Outline


IV. The Consolidation of Kingship in Israel (2Sa 1-20)

A. David’s Lament over Saul and Jonathan (ch.1)

B. David Becomes King over Judah (chs.2-4)

C. David Becomes King over All Israel (5:1-5)

D. David Conquers Jerusalem (5:6-25)

E. David Brings the Ark to JErusalem (ch.6)

F. God Promises David an Everlasting Dynasty (ch.7)

G. The Extension of David’s Kingdom (ch.8)

H. David’s Faithfulness to His Covenant with Jonathan (ch.9)

I.  David Commits Adultery and Murder (chs.10-12)

J. David Loses His Son Amnon (chs.13-14)

K. David Loses His Son Absalom (chs.15-20)

V. Final Reflections on David’s Reign (2Sa 21-24)